Tudor Bastard: notes and references

Part 8 notes and references

References, sources and further reading

Frequently updated.

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Times and dates. Note on calendar.

Two starting dates to the year: Christmas and New Year celebrations are at the same time as now, with New Year on 1st January. But they also started the New Year at around the Spring Solstice or Easter or 25th March, and this has survived today as using a year beginning early April for Income Tax etc. To attempt to avoid confusion shall try to calculate dates of birth, events, etc. from the January 1st starting date. Another possible confusion is that the calendar was a bit out of sync. Getting it right was to become an obsession in the 16th century. Especially to the Vatican as it meant their saints days etc. were drifting. Hence the Vatican observatory. And improved observations of the universe finding out that the Earth was far from being the centre around which less important objects revolved. This helped to further weaken the control of the Vatican. Hence the caution of Copernicus in publishing his results, and the persecution of scientists like Bruno and Galileo, later in the 16th century.

Tudor claim to the throne:

Was challenged, since it was won by military force, deception, strategy, and plotting especially by Henry Tudor's mother, Margaret.

Margaret Beaufort's useful husbands

1. John de la Pole. 1450. Margaret was 6, her husband 7. They separated in 1453.

2. Edmund Tudor. 1455. Margaret was 12. This husband died soon after marriage. Margaret was pregnant with Henry Tudor, her first and only child.

3. Henry Stafford. 1458-1471. Chosen by Margaret and her brother-in-law, Jasper Tudor, who as Henry Tudor's uncle looked after him as his guardian when Stafford died.

4. Thomas Lord Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby. A Yorkist, which helped Margaret ingratiate herself with Edward IV.

5. When Richard III became king, Margaret conspired with Elizabeth Woodville, widow of Edward IV, to marry her son Henry Tudor to Elizabeth's eldest daughter also Elizabeth, and heir to the throne after her two brothers. Who were to disappear in the Tower of London. It is possible that Margaret had something to do with that, since her husband had access to the Tower. The wedding of Elizabeth and Henry, united York and Lancaster into the Tudor dynasty after the defeat and death of Richard III. And the white rose (one of the emblems of York the other being the sun) with the red rose (just invented) of the Tudors. Margaret now signed her name Margaret R. And later expected to rule in her grandson's minority. Which did not last long, her grandson Henry VIII had other plans.

More on fate of Richard III and the "princes in the Tower"

In 2013, Richard III's remains were discovered in an excavation by the University of Leicester, of the remains of the chapel of Grey Friars, buried under a car park. His identity was confirmed with the help of the dna of relatives' descendents, and his horrible death by several blows, revealed in the examination of his remains. Also his state of health. He had intestinal worms. He did have scoliosis (a curved spine which makes one shoulder higher than the other - I have the same). An investigation using a current sufferer in his late 20s showed that with the type of saddle they used then, riding would not have been a problem. He was quite good looking. He had to be very strong to fight in armour. And from the evidence of the attacks on him, must have been very brave at the end.
They could not get DNA from his son's grave because his tomb at Sheriffhutton is empty. His son's remains have not been found. There is suspicion that Margaret Beaufort had arranged for him to be poisoned. Certainly she seems likely to be implicated in the imprisonment of the two sons of Edward IV, and the son of the Duke of Clarence - and their subsequent disposal. She had access to the Tower through her husband. This woman made sure her own son became King of England (and she was in power).

Part of the mystery was that no one impersonated Edward, who is still known as Edward V. The boys were frequently visited by the doctor, John Argentine, who was treating Edward for a diseased jaw. Because of this condition he became increasingly ill, and the boys were seen less and less playing outside. It is unlikely that Edward would have survived under any circumstances with this, as he would not be able to eat.

This must have been known to those that set up "pretenders" (or supported the real princes?), who were either claimed to be the Earl of Warwick or Richard of York. Richard of York the younger brother, may have really been "Perkin Warbeck" who was recognised as her nephew by Richard's aunt (his father's sister) and you can see a resemblance to Edward IV in the surviving portrait of him - a sketch of the original which was destroyed. He had a scar across one eye that was damaged apparently when they were attacked and he was helped to escape, so perhaps his story was true. One of the best books on this is "Perkin a story of deception" by Ann Wroe, 2003 which also shows how desperate Henry VII was to find evidence to show Richard was an imposter with a funny name. An alternative career for Richard is in "The Lost Prince" by David Baldwin. Much the same mystery surrounds the earlier pretender, claimed to be Edward, Earl of Warwick, who Henry VII insisted was called Lambert Simnel. And did not put him to death, but put him to work in his kitchens. He later become a falconer. Henry VII produced briefly a boy he claimed to be the real Earl of Warwick who gave the impression of being very dim (not like the real Earl of Warwick) and did not emerge again from his prison in the Tower of London until taken out to have his head cut off.

There has been a number of bones found in and around the Tower of London. Many attributed to the lost princes. However using modern methods to test the claims has so far not been allowed.

Ferdinand and Isabella were not going ahead with the marriage of their daughter to Henry VII's son until Henry VII had eliminated all potential contenders for his throne. In the end Henry VII had both "Perkin" and Warwick executed.

Last meeting in 1506 between sisters Juana, now Queen, and Katherine, Princess of Wales. Details in Spain, January 1506, Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 1, 1485-1509, 1862 p.379. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/spain/supp/vols1-2: The fate of Katherine of Aragon's oldest sister Juana. The imprisonment of Juana the rightful Queen, has in more recent years attracted books, both history and novels, and academic papers. The proposal of Henry VII in 1507 to the recently widowed Queen Juana, in British History Online. Calendar of State Papers, Spain: Supplement to Volumes 1 and 2.

Henry VII's eldest son was not by his wife but by a girlfriend he had earlier, when he lived in Brittanny. Their son was Roland de Velville. He was knighted by his father, and married a Welsh girl, Agnes ferch Gwilvym Fychan. They had children, and lived in Wales where Roland was Constable of Beaumaris Castle, Anglesey.

Dates of births:

Dates of births of girls are rarely recorded, as no legal obligation to register all births until 1538. Frequently only the date of birth of boys are usually recorded presumably as the oldest would inherit property and titles. So although their family would remember their birthday when they lived, it is rare that a record of the date of birth before that date, survives to help historians.
Hence uncertainty about Elizabeth Blount's age - but it seems she was still in her early teens or even younger when Henry VIII was first attracted to her. As she appears to be the second oldest, she is likely to have been born about 1503, making her about 16 when she gave birth to Henry VIII's son.


Dates of birth for Mary and Anne Boleyn, who followed on from Elizabeth Blount as Henry VIII's mistresses are also unrecorded, but would have to be between 1500 and 1505, since their parents were married in 1499, said they had a child each year, and George is known to have been the youngest so born in 1505. There were 5 children born, but two boys died young. Anne Boleyn seems have been the eldest, as she already had a marriage arranged for her (to her cousin James Butler). This was a common arrangement since the eldest daughter would be the heiress if no brothers survived. Elizabeth Blount's elder sister also had a marriage already arranged.

Anne Boleyn was the first to be placed by her father, for her employment and education - and it was abroad, with the Duchess Margarete, Regent of the Netherlands. Mary Boleyn appears have joined the court of Queen Katherine and then the service of Princess Mary, the King's sister, about a year later (1513).

The Regent refused to let Anne go when her father asked if she could join her sister in France as maid of honour to the King's sister Mary. So she was educated in what is now Belgium, not France. And became fluent in French in Belgium, not France. She was however in France in 1522, when she was waiting for a passage in a boat home. It appears she could have been staying at Briis-sous-Forges, in a castle which belonged to a relative of her father, Philippe de Moulin de Brie. (A tower remains). This was well positioned for access to some of the various palaces occupied by the King and Queen, and would have been convenient for Thomas Boleyn, on his frequent trips to France. The belief that Anne was educated at the Court of Queen Claude does not appear to be backed by actual evidence. (See books by Sylwia Zupanec and Eric Ives listed further on).

Although no real evidence exists, the story that Anne Boleyn was at the court of Queen Claude persists. It is largely based on earlier histories such as the work of Agnes Strickland in the 19th century. On page 385 (2nd edition) she states about Anne Boleyn:
"While at the French court her costume was a cap of velvet, trimmed in points, a little gold bell hanging from each point; a vest of the same material with silver stars, a jacket of watered silk with large hanging sleeves that almost concealed her hands, and a skirt to match. Her feet were encased in blue velvet slippers, with a strap across the instep, fastened with a diamond star. Her hair fell in ringlets about her shoulders."
Agnes Strickland's books were for general reading rather than serious history, illustrated books with pictures. Not clear where Miss Strickland obtained all her information. It is hard to imagine the straight black hair of Anne Boleyn in ringlets and under a pointy cap with bells on, especially as she does not appear to have ever been at the court of Queen Claude, who died 20th July 1524. In fact when Anne accompanied Henry VIII to Calais, to meet the King and his sons, his sisters, and his second wife, Eleanor of Austria, refused to meet Anne. His sister-in-law suggested that they send one of the King's mistresses in her place. Since none of the ladies of the French court were prepared to meet Anne Boleyn, she had to remain in Calais. That also indicates she had not been at the French court, as she would have made at least some friends there who might have wanted to meet her or that she wanted to meet, but there appears to be no one.

The Regent who had been twice widowed and had lost her only child, took a personal interest in the progress of her wards, and was an example to them of a powerful and independent woman. Anne had acquired an excellent education, and an independence of attitude, during her stay with the Regent, both being part of her attraction for Henry VIII. (At least until it clashed with his own behaviour, actions and ideas).

And another one not in France:

Jane Seymour's date of birth, and that of her brother needed working out from all the different versions. If she had gone with Princess Mary to France as traditionally asserted by 19th century historians, then she would have been rather too old to interest Henry VIII as a replacement for Anne Boleyn, since he wanted more children. He was not going marry a woman older than the one he had already. It was actually Jane's brother Edward Seymour, then 14, that went to France with Princess Mary as one of her pages. So Edward must have been older than Jane. He was in fact the eldest son. Although her date of birth is unknown, some writers put Jane's age at 29 when she died in 1537, since 29 women were in the procession at her funeral.
Jane Seymour and William Dormer fell in love and wanted to marry. More information on Tudor Place. But William was already officially betrothed to Mary Sidney, and his parents broke up the relationship. William married Mary Sidney in January 1535. This makes it likely that the romance with Jane took place about a year before. When William would have been about 20 or a year or two younger than that. So Jane may have been the same age as William or one to three years younger.
That would make Jane around 19 to 22 when Henry VIII first became seriously interested in her on his visit to her home and she was given a position at court.

Elizabeth Blount's appearance.

No detailed description exists of Elizabeth Blount's actual appearance, (only that she had more beauty than Anne Boleyn) and no certain identifiable portrait. Although did find one, which has never been correctly identified yet, only guessed at, that shows a young woman about the right age in a costume which looks very much like the one she wore for the performance in 1518 and apparently painted about that date too. And the outfit matches the description of some of masque costumes listed in Henry VIII's inventory when he died. More on this later.

Elizabeth Blount's early life and debut at court in W. Childe-Pemberton: Elizabeth Blount, also Hall's Chronicle Vol.2, p.49, Henry VIII's accounts, L & P (Letters and Papers) Vol.1, pt.2, no 3387; p. 1501, Vol. 4, no. 3036; and in J.G. Nicols, Memoir and Letters of the Duke of Richmond.

floppy hats

By the 16th century, men (and women) wore floppy hats, usually wool for every day - those at the top of the food chain had hats of velvet with embellishments including ostrich feathers (which were so expensive then they were a status symbol). The floppy hat (ancestor of soft caps we still wear with the brim only in front) came in fashion because Europe had run out of beavers whose fur provided the raw material for felt from which the stiff hat, with tall crown, could be made. They had been hunted to extinction. However the discovery of more beavers in Canada led later in the 16th century to the export of their pelts to Europe and tall felt hats were back in fashion by the end of the 16th century.

Henry VIII's invasion of France, 1513.

Details in "Henry VIII's Invasion of France" by Charles Cruickshank. This includes details of Henry's portable palace, and of course his portable loo. As well as his meetings with the Emperor Maxmillian and the Regent.


The remains of some of the 350 archers trapped on the Mary Rose in 1545 on the extra platforms which made it top heavy, and turn over and sink so quickly, have told a great deal about them. Worth a trip to Portsmouth to see this slice of history.

Jane (real name Jeanne) Popincourt

left for France with a gift of £100 from the grateful monarch when Louis XII died. She had been mistress to the Duc de Longueville, who was proxy for Louis XII at Mary's wedding before she went to France and met her husband.

Henry VIII's sister and her marriage to Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk.

This marriage was to have an impact years later in 1547 since by then, the Suffolk's daughter Frances, Henry VIII's niece, was the heir to the throne, after Mary and Elizabeth, Henry VIII's daughters (who had both been declared illegitimate by their father, but he later inserted them in the succession after their brother). King Edward VI wrote a will by-passing his half sisters Mary and Elizabeth in favour of the male heirs of his cousin Frances. Which led to her eldest daughter, (since she had 3 girls), Charles Brandon's 15-year old, grand-daughter, Jane, becoming Queen of England for a few days, and executed the following year.

Elizabeth Blount's partner at the event in 1518, Francis Bryan, brother of her close friend Elizabeth Carew, was more than 10 years older than her. And a close friend of Henry VIII. He still had both eyes at that time, - he was to lose one in a tournament in 1527. He was also a friend of Jane Seymour, helping her find a husband. The husband was Henry VIII.

Elizabeth's song from: "Some account of unpublished collection of songs and ballads by King Henry VIII and his contemporaries" By William Chappell, Esq. F.S.A. Read May 16th,1867. This is on page 378 to page 379. "Now there is one love-song in the manuscript addressed to the King by some lady for whose sake, she tells us, the King had tilted at the ring, and in six courses had taken it four times"... "If any excuse could be made for Henry it would be from his receiving such amative addresses as this ... "there is in this a frankness discoverable on the lady's part, not warranted by the manners of the present time."

More on the manuscript.

Cornish was paid £200 for this by Henry VIII, in Henry VIII's accounts.

Have found the song on this CD which has some of the other popular songs enjoyed at Henry VIII's court. On this disc they associated the song with Queen Katherine and had the idea that she sang it at the tournament of 1511. This would have been commented on and recorded, since it was not the sort of thing the Queen did especially since at the time she was recovering from childbirth. And they seemed to have missed the saucy double-entendre - the sort of format which was becoming very popular at the time Elizabeth is more likely to have sang the song.

William Cornish succeeded his father who died in 1502, as Master of the Children of the Chapel, - the choir boys who sang in the Royal Chapel. (As they had the same name and job there has been confusion between the older and younger Cornish.) The younger William Cornish was already famous for satirical ballads, which landed him in the Fleet Prison in 1507, when he upset Henry VII. He composed many of the popular music and songs early in Henry VIII's reign, some have survived and are still popular today. He also produced music for events like the Field of Cloth of Gold. He died in 1523. So would have been available to produce something with Elizabeth for her performance.

This portrait was painted with egg tempera on poplar wood, a technique still in use in Italy, Greece and Russia in the early 16th century. In North West Europe by then, artists (like Holbein) preferred to use oil paints. The date, artist and sitter are still not known. It was once thought (wrongly) to be of Lucretia Borgia, daughter of Pope Alexander VI. Others (also wrongly) thought it represented the goddess Flora. It has been dated about c. 1515-1520, the date is thought to be very likely, 1518.

It has been, but not certainly, attributed to Bartolomeo Veneto, who had been a pupil of Bellini. Mostly known for his portraits full of symbols. This attribution is in doubt. It is not signed by him - he always painted his signature as if on a piece of paper or small scroll, in his paintings. It is also not in his style, the women in his paintings tend to be slightly doll-like, and although wired wigs and hair pieces freqently appear in his female portraits, they were a current Italian fashion. Original of this painting is in the Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main, this illustration is from a copy. The bared breast, is characteristic of contempary "nymph" costume in masques, and also used to symbolise a young mother. (As in pictures of the Madonna).

The artificial looking, posy of open flowers is likely to have added for symbolic reasons for the portrait, and they convey a message (shown below). Her two pieces of jewrelry may have been hers. The one tied to her forehead and the pretty garnet pendant are both typical of the sort of thing which could be worn in England at that time, and if it was Elizabeth Blount then it might have been gifts from the King - making yet another point.

Pictures of the goddess Flora usually showed flowers coming out of her mouth and dripping all over. This is not Flora. Italian artists were employed by Henry VIII and Wolsey at that time (1518), however the history and provenance of this portrait is still not fully known. Some art historians have thought this is a portrait of the famous Lucretia Borgia. This is very unlikely. Lucretia Borgia who was born in 1480, had 12 or 15 pregnancies, and died June 1519, following the birth of a daughter who also died.

What we can say for certain, is that Elizabeth Blount must have looked something like that picture at that event as she was about the same age as the girl in the portrait, and wearing an identical or at least, a very similar costume. The costumes for the masques at Henry VIII's court, were often bought (sometimes second-hand) from Italy, especially Venice, wire wigs and hair-pieces were a contempory Venetian fashion and seen in some of Veneto's pictures (hence perhaps the attempt at that attribution) and Italian artists were employed at that time by Henry VIII and Wolsey. Not only does the costume fit the descriptions of the masque costumes worn by the dancers - of which Elizabeth Blount is mentioned as one.

In the inventory made after Henry VIII's death, masque costumes like this are described with green mantles, and also a set of the headresses resembling the one in the portrait. Likely to have been the ones worn by the dancers in this entertainment and kept for later use.

Symbolic meanings of the flowers (according to European traditions):
the 3 daisies: one facing, one turned away, one very small: the daisy symbolised "loyal love"
the anemone: unfading love, sincerity, expectation
the crocus or saffron: "abuse not", happiness, "results of pleasures"

- which would have fitted in well if this is a portrait of Elizabeth Blount...

Date of birth of Henry Fitzroy

Henry Fitzroy had to have been born early in 1519.

However a number of writers make the date 18th June, for which there is no evidence. It seems to have been confused with the christening ceremony of the French prince - Henri, as that was attended by Wolsey etc. In France.

The confusion between Henry, Henry VIII's bastard son, and Henri, the French prince who was about the same age, appears in the writings of the Revd. Alfred Inigo Suckling, 1796-1856, who was a Suffolk man, holding the titles of the manors in the village of Woodton. He became stipendiary curate of Margaretting in Essex in 1834 with an income of £120 plus surplice fees and Glebe House. He wrote four volumes of "antiquities" of Suffolk and one of Essex, which was published in full in 1845. He became Rector of Barsham in Suffolk just before his death in 1856. The date of 18th June is in his account of Blackmore:
"Adjoining the north side of the churchyard, a respectable mansion, belonging to the family of Preston, occupies the site of an ancient house of pleasure, possessed by Henry the Eighth. It is still distinguished by its former name of Jericho, which the courtiers of that gallant monarch are said to have invented to disguise the object of their master’s visits, who, when his absence from court was observed, was said to be gone to Jericho. It is a very remarkable situation to have chosen for the purposes of debauchery, as it not only abuts upon the churchyard, but is actually within a stone’s cast of the residence of the monks. Here was born Henry’s natural son, Henry Fitz-Roy, by his mistress, the Lady Elizabeth Tailbois widow of Gilbert Lord Tailbois, and daughter of Sir John Blount - a female so eminent for her beauty and accomplishments, that this frailty hindered not her subsequent union with Edward Clinton, the first Earl of Lincoln of that family. Henry Fitz-Roy was created, at the early age of six years, Earl of Nottingham, and Duke of Richmond and Somerset, in June 1525 and likewise elected a Knight of the Garter. These dignities were conferred on the anniversary of his birthday, which was on the 18th of that month. Nor did his royal father’s affection stop here; for, on the 26th of the following July, he was constituted, with amusing absurdity, Admiral of England, Ireland, and Normandy. Two years after, he was made Warden of the East, West, and Middle Marches, towards Scotland; and, in the 22nd of Henry the Eighth, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
He is acknowledged to have been a youth of great promise, displaying much capacity in the acquirement of learning, and excelling in genius and refinement of manners. His education was finished at Paris, whence he returned in 1532, and married soon after, at a very tender age, to Mary, daughter of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, and sister to the accomplished Earl of Surrey. He was born at Jericho House on the 18th of June 1519, and died at Westminster, without issue, on the 24th of July, 1536, in the seventeenth year of his age, and to the sincere regret of his father. He was buried at Thetford in Norfolk."

The 18th June was when the French prince Henri was christened. He was born about the same time as Henry Fitzroy, earlier that year (possibly February), but his grand christening was postponed as he had health problems. It is the grand christening in France of Prince Henri, that was attended by Wolsey, and Thomas Boleyn amongst others. Henry Fitzroy did not have a great public christening, he only became important to his father when he reached the age of six and was still the only son.

There are so many other bloopers (eg Elizabeth being a widow when she was still an unmarried teenager which must have been based on a belief that the founder of the C of E would not have preyed on young girls) in this and similar accounts of that time - they must all copy each other - that it looks like this date is another.

Several other accounts have also gone for the King's private brothel theme and Elizabeth being an older widow. Not backed by any primary evidence. Although Henry VIII did take a new interest in Elizabeth later on when she was a widow.

There is no magic in the investiture being when Richmond was six - or that it was on his birthday since no actual date of birth has been found. Presents from the King to Elizabeth's Blount's father are a likely clue. The events for the King's acknowledgement of his son, happened over a period of time, when Wolsey had to find a suitable husband for Elizabeth Blount. This was at a time when it seemed likely that the Queen might have more children. It was all part of Henry VIII's plans for his family. He clearly was proud of his son and wanted to acknowledge him. But did not then have plans to ditch his wife to marry his son's mother.

When his son was 6, his daughter Mary was now aged 9, and she was to have her own ceremony that year when she was invested as Princess of Wales. Henry Fitzroy's ceremony soon after his half sister Mary's ceremony as Princess of Wales, was shared with a number of other investitures including the King's 2 year old nephew Henry Brandon who was made Earl of Lincoln. Plans for these had been going on from some time before. Both the King's children departed in procession from London during August, to take up their new roles. There will be more on the events from 1522 later in the book.

Marriage of Elizabeth Blount:

Act of Parliament settling Tailboys lands on Elizabeth, 14 Hen.8 ch.34, 1522. Gilbert Tailboys' knighthood L & P Vol.4 p.307, account on pp.cxlvi and lxlv. South Kyme's history in Margaret Newton: South Kyme The History of a Fenland Village.

After the deaths of her brothers, Elizabeth Tailboys, became Baroness Tailboys in her own right, and campaigned unsuccessfully to take her place in the House of Lords, or at least be allowed to have her husband Thomas Wymbush, represent her. She may have been the first woman to campaign for the right to sit in Parliament. Henry VIII would only allow her husband to represent her in parliament, and then only if he was the father of her son, but they had no children. She married the second time, in 1553, to Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick. She died in 1563. She had no surviving children.

Marriage and clergy:

It was not unusual for clerics to have partners and children although they were expected to be celibate. But this was not always strictly enforced. Especially with the standards recently set by Popes like Alexander Borgia, famous for his seven children especially Cesare and Lucretia, and for the "chestnut banquet" held in the papal palace. His successor Pope Julius II, had just one daughter, Felice, and commissioned Michelangelo Buonarrotti to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. (Michelangelo's orginal works of art had much more virile men than we see today - certain parts were later to suffer added strategic drapes, figleaves or being re-structured smaller.) The next Pope, Leo X - a Medici, did not have children as he was gay. He was far more cultured and liberal minded, than many of the subsequent popes. And also had a famous white elephant as a pet called Hanno.

Marriages of convenience.

Being a gay man (usually only men seem to have been targeted) was not illegal in England until 1533, but was still condemned by the church despite the behaviour of certain Popes and other clerics. Hence "marriages of convenience". This may have applied to Mary Boleyn's first marriage - to William Carey. And also for Jane Parker's marriage to George Boleyn. Different opinions on this. Jane Parker is not known to ever be pregnant but she may have had undiagnosed problems. George was said to have had a son by someone else but that is not certain and possibly mistaken. Although Jane's husband had been executed, Henry VIII (who appears to have fancied Jane himself before her marriage was arranged) made her a lady in waiting to his next 3 Queens until she was executed herself along with Queen no.5.

An Acte for the punysshement of the vice of Buggerie

was passed in 1533, penalty was execution. Any sort of irregular sex committed by a man came under the Act. It was really intended to catch out monks as part of the King's plan to found his own church, close all monasteries, convents etc. and bag all the monastic lands, buildings and property for himself and favoured friends.


Thomas Cromwell, is known as a family man, devoted to his wife, Elizabeth a widow when he married her, and their three children, Anne, Grace, and Gregory. And his two sisters: Katherine who married Morgan Williams, and had a son called Richard. And Elizabeth who married William Wellifed, their son Christopher was also taken under the wing of his uncle Thomas. Around 1529, as a result of the epidemic at that time, his family was tragically reduced. All the women and girls died. Cromwell was left with his son Gregory, and his nephews Richard and Christopher. Richard changed his surname to Cromwell, and Oliver Cromwell was his most famous descendent.

Cromwell, John Creke and Nicolas Udall.

In July 1522 John Creke a merchant tailor in Bilbao sent a letter to Cromwell in Latin, addressing him as (translated)"the dearest man to be found in the world" and continues "the great love that has been between us cannot go from my memory, the affection was so perfect....." "My heart mourns for your company and Mr. Wodall's (Nicolas Udall) as ever it did for men"....

Cromwell had taken over his father-in-law's wool business, and Bilbao was established as a river port in the 15th century to ship the wool from the sheep (which had long soft wool) on the surrounding mountains.

Here it is as summarized and printed in Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII Vol 3 pp 1001-1020, from Henry VIII - July 1522, 17 July. Original is ref: R.O. 2394.

"Carissimo quanto homo in questo mondo!" Has certified him by former letters of his safe arrival, but has received no answer; "wherefore the less for this present shall suffice of my part: the great amicitia that hath be between us cannot out of my memory, the affection was so perfect; and if ever I come above you shall know it. My love toward you resteth in no less vigour than it did at our last being together. My heart mourneth for your company and Mr. Wodal's as ever it did for men. As I am true Christian man, I never had so faithful affection to men of so short acquaintance in my life; the which affection increaseth as fire daily. God knoweth what pain I receive in departing, when I remember our gosly(?) walking in your garden; it make me desperate to contemplate. I would write larger; my heart will not let me."
The Emperor landed on the 16th at Santander. "All this country is marvelous joyful" at his coming. It is said he will now go courageously forth with his wars. Will send him the news. Will be glad to hear from him at his leisure. "To good Mr. Wodall and to your good wife have [me] heartily commanded." Bylbow,(Bilbao) 17 July 1522.
To the worshipful Thomas Cromwell, London.

Picture shows 16th century Bilbao. It was the centre of a wool trade - the wool came from the long haired sheep on the mountain sides around Bilbao. (This long staple was greatly valued for luxury woollen cloth). From there it was exported, since Bilbao has access by the river to the Atlantic ocean. Ships from Bilbao crossed the North Atlantic where they fished for cod and traded with the local inhabitants.

Udall (or Woodhall, Uvedale, etc.) may have been Nicholas Udall. He would have then been only about 18. There were many Udalls, Woodhalls, Wodhalls, Woodall, Uvedales etc.(same name with different spellings) at that time But Nicholas Udall is known to have been a friend of Cromwell. With John Leland he wrote the scenes that entertained the crowd for Anne Boleyn's coronation. He became Headmaster of Eton. (Cromwell might have chosen to take Udall with him as a clerical assistant to Bilbao knowing he would get on with Creke).

More on Nicholas Udall and also below his arrest under the Buggery Act.

In 1541, soon after Cromwell was executed, Udall was arrested for abusing two of his pupils. Udall still had other influential friends to appeal to for help and he got away with a year in the Marshalsea prison.

After which he was still welcome at court! He helped Queen Katherine Parr and her ladies, including the King's daughter Mary, work on translations of the New Testament which the Queen had published. And became Headmaster of Westminster School. The Buggery Act was repealed by Mary when she became Queen in 1553. Udall staged entertainments for her including Roister Doister.

Thomas Cromwell was executed in 1540, on the same scaffold at the same time as Walter Hungerford, (Baron Hungerford of Heytesbury) who was sentenced to death under the Buggery Act of 1533. Hungerford was accused of raping a 7 year old girl. Hungerford was also sentenced to death for treason. Charged with employing a chaplain who who had sympathized with the Pilgrimage of Grace, and also employed two other clergy as magicians to determine the king's length of life and chances of victory over the northern rebels. Cromwell had helped Hungerford's wife when she appealed to him over her brutal treatment by her husband.

Every thing was done, from being accompanied on the scaffold by the understandably hysterical Hungerford, down to the blunt axe to make Cromwell's final minutes as miserable as possible. But soon after Henry VIII missed him and realized he had been too hasty. He complained that his councillors had "upon light pretexts, by false accusations, had made him put to death the most faithful servant he ever had". Cromwell's son Gregory was made Baron Cromwell and given a number of grants of lands.

Mary's sister Elizabeth, brought the Buggery Act back. It was still a hanging offence until 1861, and did not get repealed again in Britain until 1967. That only applies to consenting adults. Nicholas Udall and Walter Hungerford, could today still have been imprisoned for child abuse - or get away with it through influential friends and contacts.

Wolsey's plans for governing the marches in R.R.Reid: the King's Council in the North, Ch.5.

Ireland and the other three places in France had not been English territory for many years but Henry VIII's foreign policy was stuck in a time-warp of trying to regain long lost territory.

Richmond's progress to Yorkshire, L & P Vol.4, pt.1, no.1540.

Richmond's household listed in Memoir p.xxiii-xxvi. Livery L&P Vol.4, pt.1 no.530.

Palsgrave's book mentioned L&P Vol.3, pt.2, no.3680. Croke's letters Memoir, pp.xxvii. Richmond's letters: BM cotton Vesp.F.III.f.44, PRO SP 1/40, f.210, SP 1/46, f.169. The illustration is from copy of letter written aged 7 to his father from Pontefract. Household accounts of Duke of Richmond in PRO. Listed in L&P Vol.4, pt. 1, nos. 1512, 1513, 1514. Ineffectual economy drive L&P Vol.4 Pt. 2 no. 2861.

Death of auditor caused by Richmond's household accounts, L&P Vol.4, pt.2, no.2885. Accounts give the diets of Richmond and his household - to compare with average at this time see W.G.Hoskins: The Age of Plunder, 1976. Letters from Council, L&P Vol.4, pt.2 no.2729. Richmond learning music, L&P Vol.4, pt.2, no.2801. New Year Gifts & letter, Memoir p.xxxi, SP 1/40, f.210 (original), (picture copied from a copy). Letters with James V, Memoir xxxii, L&P Vol.4, pt.2, no.2578, also letters of James V. Marriage negs.: L&P Vol.4, pt. 2, nos. 2875 & 6, Catherine d'Medici, Cal.SP.Ven.(Calendar of State Papers, Venetian).Vol.3, no.1289, Portugal, L&P Vol.4,pt.,2, no.3052,3105, 3015, 3271. Denmark, Cal.SP.Ven.Vol.4, pp.93-95.

The King's divorce is dealt with in detail in many books, so full details are not given here. He may have been inspired by his elder sister Margaret who in 1527 divorced her second husband, the Earl of Angus, to enable her to marry her third husband. Angus and their daughter Margaret took refuge in England and Henry VIII treated Margaret like a daughter (which was not always a good thing).

Croke's letter of reference Memoir p.xlvii. More on Croke in Dictionary of National Biography.

Richmond's letters asking for armour (Public Records Office) PRO SP/40 f.169.

The climate and its affect

This chart shows how the climate cooled, so that by the 16th century the Arctic, which had been accessible to northern shipping to the extent that there were Scandinavian colonies on the north coast of Russia and Siberia (Mangazeya) and in Newfoundland, (and regular shipping from Spain and France for fishing and trade) was remembered, but found to be no longer so easily accessible. Grape vines in England had been used to produce local wines good enough for export. As we have seen, in 1528 the wine produced was undrinkable. (British wine despite efforts has not been very successful since). By the end of 1536, the Thames had frozen over so Henry VIII with latest Queen, Jane, who would normally have gone in procession down the Thames to Greenwich by barge, rode there crossing the river on the ice. On the bright side, by the end of the 17th century there was no more plague and malaria in northern Europe.

A possible cause of this global cooling may have been the eruption of Gunung Rinjani, still an active volcano, on the island of Lombok, in Indonesia. It had a massive eruption in 1257.

Weather and economy 1528/9 also in Hoskins: The Age of Plunder.

Sir William Parr describes The Sweat (Memoir p. liv-lv. Topcliff Memoir lvi-lvii.) Also Neville to stay.


also did a drawing for a portrait of Sir William Parr who was at Sheriff Hutton with the Duke of Richmond. In same year Holbein did a wonderfully detailed portrait of Nicolas Kratzer, astronomer, sundial maker, and astronomer and drinking partner to the King, complete with his sun dials and other instruments. On one of his sundials it says:
"To one thousand five hundred and three years add twice ten, and you will discover the time at which I was placed here. Thomas Mosgrave 2 (then) professed medicine at Oxford, and was skilled therein. William Aest the stone cutter set me up fairly with his own hands, and placed me in this spot. Nicolas Kratzer, the Bavarian who was of Munich, caused me to tell all the hours. He also at that time lectured to his pupils on astronomy, and much learning he handed down. He was then the astronomer of King Henry, of that name the eighth, who held him very dear. The stone cutter was English, the other German, at the time when I was the admiration of the whole age. Both men drank ever in the German fashion, and could swallow all the liquor that there was."

Holbein visited England again in 1533, when he did his signature masterpiece "The Ambassadors", but did not become the King's painter until 1536, when he did the iconic portrait of Henry VIII. Also drawings survive of Duchess of Richmond, and Earl of Surrey, but not of Richmond. Although may be unidentified - it does look like any portraits could have been destroyed on the orders of Henry VIII.

The coloured sketch which is very probably of the Duke of Richmond, Holbein took back to Basel with him when he returned to his wife and children in 1528, which is now in the museum there, was very likely the sketch for a finished portrait,which had either disappeared or never was finished. Both times that I saw it, it was labelled as King Edward VI. However it was clear that it could not have been Edward VI since the style of clothes and hair are from the 1520s. And Holbein died in 1543, his only known portrait of Edward shows him as a toddler. Could not have been the only one who noticed this, since the picture now has the undisputable label of young boy with monkey.

The colours have faded, especially the red.

Anne Boleyn:

No orginal portraits, only later copies, made when her daughter was Queen and later, survive of Anne Boleyn (it looks like Henry VIII had her portraits destroyed) but a lead medallion survives and is in the British Museum. There are many descriptions but most of these came later and are clearly not accurate. Those that are, as well as the forensic evidence from the excavation and re-interrment of her remains in the Tower of London, (which being early 19th century is not entirely reliable as it might have been Henry VIII's 5th queen Katherine instead), indicate that she was petite, about 5ft. (not tall as in some later descriptions). She was dark and rather hairy for a young woman (her maids would have noticed that) and had inherited the Howard short and thin, dark swarthy looks from her mother, sister to the Duke of Norfolk. She was slim, almost flat chested, ("breasts not much raised") her brown eyes prominent (hence called "the goggle-eyed whore") and a swelling in her neck just below her chin. (Which can be seen on the medallion). These last two features especially, plus being thin and with excessive body hair, and her hyperactive nature, becoming increasingly agitated and aggressive as she grew older and more stressed, indicates that she may have suffered an enlarged and overactive thyroid. If so, since this can affect a developing foetus, it might have contributed to the two miscarriages following the birth of Elizabeth. Since Anne herself had at least one of the defects associated with this condition, an extra finger, she may have inherited the condition from her mother, who did have five children but two died very young. Stress, though, and possibly fibroids, could have made her more likely to miscarry after her first child, especially as she was already in her mid 30s. She is said to have had a "mole" that is a pregnancy where the egg fails to develop, but the sperm which have impregnated it keep on with their job. The result is a great blob with waving knobs all over it, which eventually is aborted naturally or partially aborted. It can lead to cancer - as happened with Queen Mary I. In my case I had a hysterectomy. Anne Boleyn is said by some to have had a mole (a pregnancy in which the foetus does not develop) and also to have had miscarried of a boy of her last pregnancy. However these accounts were written after she had been executed. Her second pregnancy had a mysterious termination, it just kept on until it was clear nothing was going to happen. Her last miscarried at 3 months.

There is no shortage of information about Anne Boleyn but much of it repeats errors and assumptions made by writers as early as the later 16th century. Hence some time had to be spent sorting the myths from actual facts. Luckily quite a few other authors have studied Anne recently and some of them have made a point of investigating the assumed facts. Recommended books, eBooks, and websites further on.

Also many 18th and 19th centuries writers blurred the distinction between fact and fiction, not letting missing or dodgy information get in the way of a good story. Then it gets repeated. Modern historians tend to be more cautious: For example Agnes Strickland (p.381 but different in many other editions) describes a costume that Anne Boleyn wore "in the service of Queen Claude, wife of Francis I" - "While at the French court her costume was a cap of velvet, trimmed in points, a little gold bell hanging from each point; a vest of the same material with silver stars, a jacket of watered silk with large hanging sleeves that almost concealed her hands, and a skirt to match. Her feet were encased in blue velvet slippers, with a strap across the instep, fastened with a diamond star. Her hair fell in ringlets about her shoulders."

It looks like a typical dress for a masque - not an everyday uniform while on duty to the Queen (the bells would have driven the Queen barmy). The ringlets would not have been Anne's straight black hair permed, but a wired wig like those found in Henry VIII's stores. It might be possible to investigate the costume to see if it was listed and where. Have found wigs and other parts of the costume like that worn at a masque by Elizabeth Blount and other dancers, amongst the stuff listed in Henry VIII's inventory made after his death. Still would not have known who wore it and for what occasion, unless there is a picture or description of them in it.

More recent historians have not found any evidence that Anne was employed by Queen Claude, before she returned to England in 1522. She was in France then, as she may have been staying at an old Boleyn family home in Briss-sous-Forges. This looked like a castle, (part still survives) and Anne's parents were friends of and distantly related to,the owner, Philippe de Moulin de Brie. Anne's father used to stay there as it was conveniently placed for most of the royal palaces used by the French Court. Another explanation is that she returned home to Hever at 15, but having been discovered snogging with two members of staff (on separate occasions) was sent abroad to stay with the French relatives. It would have been conveniently placed for Anne to be collected with other "students" for the ship home. The confusion might be from those who can't imagine Anne was one of the students as mentioned. In fact she may have been placed to collect information.

Katherine's nephew, the Emperor Charles V, was the most powerful man in Europe. But could she depend on his support. He treated his own mother Juana, Katherine's sister, abysmally. On the death of her mother Isabella, her father Ferdinand tricked her and her husband into coming to Spain from Burgundy to claim her inheritance of Aragon. There he poisoned her husband, and imprisoned Juana, pregnant with her fifth child, giving out that she had gone mad and was incapable of ruling. After fourteen years her daughter, now grown up, managed to get a letter to her brother complaining how they were imprisoned in a room without windows, and ill treated by their gaolers. Charles V removed his sister, leaving his mother to rot in prison for the rest of her life. He would champion his aunt's cause if it was convenient for him. (Fate of Juana of Aragon in Calendar of State Papers, Spanish, supplement.)

Wolsey had blocked Anne Boleyn's choice of Eleanor Carey, sister of her brother-in-law, for position as Abbess of Wilton Abbey, on the reasonable grounds that this nun was the mother of two children by different men and was now the mistress of another man, so not the best choice for an Abbess. His own nominee was also the choice of the nuns residing at Wilton Abbey. Anne complained to the King that Wolsey had offended her. She already blamed Wolsey for breaking up her marriage to Henry Percy. And for not making enough effort to secure the King's divorce which would lead to her becoming Queen. Anne's resentment, may not only have caused her interest in Wolsey's downfall, but also been behind her ambition to replace her sister not only as Henry VIII's mistress but as his next wife and queen.

Acts of Parliament referring to the Duke of Richmond

L&P Vol./5, no.48,148,394,720. Information on presents to Richmond etc. in Henry VIII's accounts in PRO and British Library, inc. BM Arundel 97, and BM Add.MS.2030.

Gilbert Tailboys' original tomb

was moved when the priory was dissolved but his body remains in a vault by the altar in the reconstructed church, together with the bodies of 3 children (At least one of them cannot be his). A plaque on the wall was more recently put there by a descendent. A stone plaque with two brasses representing Gilbert and Elizabeth had been put up after the dissolution in the remaining part of the church but that had been vandalized and the brass of Elizabeth was separated and only found quite recently.

Norfolk's ambitions for his children

Cal.SP.Span.Vol.5.p.228. Garter ceremony in Anstis.Vol.2,app.VII. Palsgrave in DNB. (Dictionary of National Biography). Many biographies of Mary.

Surrey's poems.

Jessie Childs: Henry VIII's Last Victim. His poem on his life with Richmond in Memoir and other places.

Description of Elizabeth Blount

and comments on King's possible marriage to her: L&P Vol.5 no.114. William Parr complains about unpopularity of Richmond and his friends in letter to Cromwell 20th April, 1532. Cromwell has many biographies. Elizabeth courted by Grey in Childe-Pemberton. Grey later became Lord Deputy of Ireland and executed in Henry VIII's purge of 1540. As Cromwell was soon after.

Richmond 1532-3

at Hatfield L&P vol.5, no.905. Visit to France: Chronicle of Calais, p41, L&P vol.5, nos. 1484, 1485, 1474. Hall's Chronicle, F.ccvii. Richmond's debts, L&P Add.pt.1,1532, no.830. Description of Richmond and his part in ceremonies in Calais, Cal.SP.Ven.Vol.5, nos.694,795,832,824. Richmond's arrangments to go into France, L&P Vol.5, nos.1529, 1538, 1616. Journey into France: L&P Vol.5, nos.1625, 1538, 1618. and BM.Calig.E.1.f.42.

Richmond in France:

Cal.SP.Ven.Vol.5, nos. 876,973,1036,1076. H.N.Williams: Henri II, has some details about stay in France. Norfolk in France: L&P Vol.6, nos.811, 831. Chronicle of Calais p.44. George Boleyn's murder attempt from his wife's evidence at trial and L&P Vol.6, no.845. Richmond return from France: L&P Vol.6, no.1069, Cal.SP.Ven.Vol.5,no.973, Chronicle of Calais, p.44.

No Royal Wedding for Anne.

Anne and Henry VIII never went through a public marriage ceremony. It is possible that the two secret wedding dates in November and January, were thought of by chroniclers later when Elizabeth was Queen of England and her legitimacy had to be more secure and her mother's reputation had to be cleaned up. Anne did have a splendid coronation with street decorations designed by Holbein and pageants along the route scripted by Leland and Udall.

Anne had the opportunity to own and drive a car after she was Queen, when Henry VIII was offered one for her, as a reward for payment of a debt. (Original PRO 163/15/36, this came from paper: The Invention of a Self-Propelled Vehicle in the 16th century, by James Alsop, 1981.) Anne Boleyn may have been the first woman driver in England.

Anne's problems with Henry VIII, L&P Vol.6, no.1069. Treatment of Princess Mary L&P Vol.6, nos. 1125, 1126, 1558 and Catherine, 1571. Marriage of Richmond to Mary Howard L&P Vol.6, no.140. Memoir p.lxii. More on Mary Howard: L&P Vol.11, no.1138, L&P Vol.4, pt. 1, no.1355, L&P Vol.12 pt.1, nos. 3,42, L&P, Vol.4, pt.1, no.1355, L&P Vol.12 pt.1, nos.3, 43, L&P Vol.12, pt.1, p.119, footnote and no.142. Gentleman's Magazine Vol.23, May 1845. Henry VIII was offered a mechanical car for his new Queen by John Marmin, imprisoned in Ludgate because of a debt he owned John Gresham.

Parliament of January 1534, Lords Journal Vol.1, & S.E. Lehmberg: The Reformation Parliament 1529-36. Richmond attends along with Duke of Norfolk, on 38 out of possible 45 days.

Anne's argument with her sister who was expecting her third child which was to be a daughter she called Mary (and does not appear to have lived long). Her second child Henry was assumed to be by the King, though not officially acknowledged, this may be why Anne adopted him as her ward. L&P Vol.8, no.567, L&P Vol.4, preface, p.ccxxv.

Another challenge to Anne Boleyn in her own household was Katherine Parr. In 1533, she was an attractive auburn haired 19-year old widow, whose father-in-law, Lord Burgh was Anne's Chamberlain. Katherine attracted notice by her intelligent participation in discussions around Anne's dinner table. She escaped the attentions of her awful father-in-law who was abusive to his daughters-in-law, and also the attentions of Henry VIII - which made Anne Boleyn spiteful, by marrying Lord Latimer. He had two children needing a mother and he also shared her reformist views. Eventually Katherine Parr was widowed again, in time for Henry VIII to make her his 6th and surviving wife. She then married Thomas Seymour, one of Jane Seymour's brothers, who by then had twice unsuccessfully tried to arrange his marriage to Henry Fitzroy's widow, Mary, Duchess of Richmond. Katherine Parr died after giving birth to their daughter Mary. Thomas Seymour was executed soon after, and the child was given to Katherine Willoughby to care for. She complained that she was not being paid and the fate of little Mary Seymour is not known after the age of four.

Elizabeth's marriage to Lord Clinton and their children in Childe-Pemberton.

Cromwell's plan to send Richmond to Ireland: L&P, Vol.6, no.1528, L&P Vol.9, no.613, L&P Vol.7, no.1141, L&P Vol. 7 no.1107. Chapter of the Garter where Richmond appointed the King's deputy, Anstis Vol.2, p.393, and L&P vol.7, no. 682. There is a picture of the Duke of Richmond heading the garter procession at Windsor. Also a picture of Henry VIII and the Knights of the Garter, 1534, Black Book of the Order of the Garter.

Richmond's progress to Poole, Memoir, p.xcx and L&P Vol.7, no.772. Richmond's furniture in described in J.G.Nicols: Inventory. 16th century Poole described in Victoria County History of Dorset, Vol.2, pt.2, pp.209-212. Letters to Cromwell by Richmond in Public Records Office.

Bridget was to marry Robert Dymoke of Scrivelsby and later lived at South Kyme. Katherine was to marry Thomas Burgh, youngest brother of Katherine Parr's first husband, and only surviving son and successor of Lord Burgh of Gainsborough. Margaret was to marry Charles Lord Willoughby of Parham.

Entertaining the Admiral of France: Cal.SP.Span.Vol.5 pt.1, pp. 331,376. At Westminster, Memoir, p.lxxi, entertaining Chapuys, L&P Vol.7, no.1482, 1507.

Princess Mary's troubles, more information in: Linda Porter - Mary Tudor: C. Erickson - Bloody Mary, and other books on Mary. In fact the pills to bring on her periods probably contained ergometrine, an ancient remedy still used, for inducing contractions of the womb. To bring on periods, or clear up after birth or miscarriage. People prone to migraines, as Mary was, may be allergic to ergometrine.

Execution was of three Carthusian and one Brigettine monk, in L&P Vol.8, no. 666, Cal.SP.Span.Vol.5, pt.1, no.156. Also in L&P, Vol.8, no.895, BM Harl.MS.530, f.54. Richmond's letter to Cromwell from Sheffield, PRO SP.1, no.93. It was dictated to a secretary and signed by him. His removal to Holt, L&P, Vol.9, no.599. Complaints: L&P Vol.9, no.510.

Letter from Surrey to Stretes, 1546, L&P Vol.21, pt. 1, no. 1426. Clothes in Inventory. Cancellation of Parliament, Lehmberg.

Anne's raid on Catherine's possessions: Inventory. Grants of land to Richmond, L&P Vol.10, no.380. His father tried to get the Duchy of Milan for him, L&P Vol.10, no. 687. Jane Seymour, L&P Vol.10, p. 248.

Richmond's meeting with his father after Anne's arrest, L&P Vol.10, no.908, Cal.SP. Span.Vol.5, 19th May 1536. E.W.Ives's article in History, June 1972, suggested the arrest and execution of the men associated with Anne was to eliminate her faction at court. Richmond claimed Norris's stewardship when Norris was arrested, L&P Vol.10, no.891. Richmond was made Chamberlain of Chester and North Wales and also received Baynards Castle, L&P Vol.6, no.1057 which had only recently been passed on to George Boleyn. Description of Baynards Castle, Stows Survey of London. Letter from Emperor L&P Vol. 10, no.888.

Jane Boleyn

had no children by George, never remarried and was to serve Henry VIII's 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th Queens. Service to the 5th Queen, who was discovered to have had many boyfriends, the last while married to Henry VIII, and not reported to the King by Jane, led to Jane (who was helping the lovers meet secretly in odd places like the guarderobe - toilet) getting axed with her. Cromwell was executed after the 3rd marriage so was no longer around to help her. You can see the en-suite toilet in Gainsborough Old Hall, which is open to the public.

Anne's aspersions of Henry VIII, L&P Vol.10, p.378. Call for Richmond to be the King's heir, L&P Vol.10, no.1069, Cal.SP.Span.Vol.5, pt.1, p.61. Cromwell's gifts to Mary in his accounts. Mary a bastard, so Richmond can be made the heir, L&P Vol.10, no.147. Act of Succession, L&P Vol.11, no.105, Add. MS. BM 4507, f.4; also S.E. Lehmberg: The Later Parliaments of Henry VIII, 1536-1547. Wedding celebrations, illness of Richmond: Cal.SP.Span.Vol.5, p.196, L&P Vol.9, no.40. Comparison to illness of King Edward VI made by Edward's physicians.

Affair of Margaret Douglas: Cal.SP.Span.Vol.5, p.214, L&P Vol.12 no.48. Act against seducing princesses, Lehmberg.

Richmond to go to Sittingbourne, L&P Vol.9, no.1249. He is listed by Cromwell, as one of the persons to accompany the King with his own entourage of 20 persons. Most of his furnishings were at Tonge near Sittingbourne when he died.

Henry VIII's fears that the Duke of Richmond would usurp the claims of any younger children he may have were valid. It seems though that Thomas Boleyn was encouraging this idea. His mother's brothers Edward and Richard and cousin Edward Earl of Warwick were put in the Tower of London before the coronation of Richard III and never emerged. Edward Earl of Warwick was executed years later by Henry VII. Warwick's sister Margaret, Countess of Salisbury, who had been governess to Princess Mary was brutally executed in 1541. In the 17th century, the bastard son of Charles II, the Duke of Monmouth was to make two attempts to claim the throne with a rebel army.

Act of succession, BM. Add. MS. 4507, f.4. Attendance of Richmond in Parliament, Lords Journals. Letter to Lisle, L&P Vol.11, no.108. There was an elegiac poem on Richmond's death by Nicolas de Bourbon. (In Memoir). Letters from Norfolk about his orders for Richmond's funeral and the King's displeasure L&P Vol.11, no.233. Gostwyk's report L&P Vol.11, no.174. Carriage of coffin to Thetford, L&P Vol.11, no.221. Surrey ill L&P Vol.11 no.233. Bequests in Inventory which has full details of Richmond's clothes etc. Duchess of Richmond's pension, Augmentation Book 23, f.339. Paper on her in Gentleman's Magazine, Vol.23, May 1845, by J. G. Nicols.

Surrey has many biographies, including more recently: "Henry VIII's Last Victim" by Jessie Childs. His poem remembering his life with the Duke of Richmond in Memoir also on websites and many other sources.

Illness and death of Katherine of Aragon

(And the poison threat of Anne Boleyn.)

Since Anne Boleyn had actually been heard boasting that she would poison Katherine and her daughter Mary, there was a lot of worry, when they became ill, that she had actually done this. Certainly there had been an attempt by Anne's brother George Boleyn to poison the Duke of Richmond. Which fortunately failed since he shared the wine with the Earl of Surrey. They were both ill, but not dead. Whether or not Anne and George had attempted this on Katherine and Mary, they did not succeed. The autopsy on Katherine by the undertakers (who did the professional autopsies then, not doctors) revealed that having searched the intestines, stomach etc. they found them all healthy. It was her heart which was blackened inside and out, and inside they also found a black round thing. This indicates a myocardial infarction. A massive heart attack. One of the symptoms is a feeling of indigestion. It looks like the chest pains Katherine and her doctors thought were stomach pains and may have been caused by attempts by Anne to poison her food and drink, were actually from her heart condition. This can be caused by stress, which she had clearly been suffering for some years.

Information on this comes from the autopsy. The interpretation of it was assisted by the research and personal experience of Mervyn Hobden. See also: Wikipedia and other websites on myocardial infarction.

We can accept the observations of the undertakers. They knew far more about the human body than the doctors. Or even the surgeons. In fact most doctors knew little about human insides since dissection of human corpses was still mostly banned on religious grounds. They relied on books with drawings and descriptions based on animals. They may occasionally by this time have had the chance to observe a human dissection in a lecture theatre, but rarely or never to perform one.

Richmond's widow was to join her husband in his tomb (or rather under it) in 1557. The tomb at Framlingham is not the original. Richmond was buried at Thetford with other members of the Howard family. Fragments have been found from recent excavations, of a once impressive tomb. The Howard tombs were moved when Henry VIII insisted on having Thetford Priory dissolved and demolished. The present sarcophagus was made later, clearly by the same mason who made other new tombs for the dead family members.

Masses were ordered for Richmond L&P Vol.12, pt.1, no.947. Richmond's tomb in Parish Church of St.Michael, Framlingham.

The Lincolnshire Rebellion is in many books, including "The Lincolnshire Rising 1536" by Anne Ward, ISBN 0901977063, 1986. We discussed the possible connection with Richmond in 1985/6 when she was working on the booklet and the celebrations and she pointed out inaccuracies in other books, so this should be a correct version of events. (Sadly Anne died soon after at only 50).

Gathering of people in Lincolnshire, M.H. & R.Dodds: The Pilgrimage of Grace.

An excellent more recent book on the Lincolnshire Rebellion and Pilgrimage of Grace is "The Pilgrimage of Grace" by Geoffrey Moorhouse. Part played by Richmond's family also in Childe-Pemberton.

An article in Lincolnshire Past & Present, Spring 2016, by Brian Hodgkinson "Peter Efford: Thrice Mayor of Lincoln" gives more insight into the Lincolnshire Rising of 1536.

Tattershall Castle was used to accomodate a large number of the rebels. And Longland, the Bishop of Lincoln sheltered in the Collegiate Church next door. As this had been one of Richmond's properties, it does link him to the rebellion - at least to the earlier beginnings. The reconstruction of Tattershall as it was when first rebuilt, comes from The National Trust who who have restored the castle which is open to the public. A booklet is on sale at the castle. Henry VIII gave Tattershall to his brother-in-law, Charles Brandon, in 1537, as a reward for his part in putting down the Lincolnshire rebellion.

  • Not the only one to suspect the Duke of Richmond could have been murdered.


  • Mervyn Hobden, Peter Hobden, Eddie Hobden, Susan McEwan, Rose Hobden.
    (they all helped one way or another for me at some time or other, to have the technology and supplies, trips, revision, etc, to get this project done eventually)

  • John Howarth, Castle Farm, Sheriff Hutton, was living there in 1976 when we visited. The Howarths told us about the Sheriff Hutton Castle which more of less surrounded their farmhouse.

  • Paul Tuffery who took us to Sheriff Hutton the first time

  • Richard Ormond, then Assistant Keeper, National Portrait Gallery.

  • Oliver Millar Keeper of the Queen's Pictures.

  • Anne Ward - who was involved in the celebrations on the Lincolnshire Rebellion.

  • The staff in the former Public Records Office in Chancery Lane (and the recommendation to join the HSA)

  • The staff in the former British Library at the British Museum including the one that showed me the forbidden books.

  • The staff in the British Library manuscripts and the people who showed me the scientific instruments and other things that had belonged to Henry VIII and his sons.

  • Beresford Hutchinson: who recommended me as FRAI, and to look at the scientific instruments, in the British Museum and National Maritime Museum etc.

  • The helpful staff in libraries: only one exception a librarian in Stevenage who had been sending back the books I had ordered without informing me they arrived. When I found out he said "what is a housewife like you doing reading books like that". So complained to Herfordshire central library - was not the only one to complain about him. He was replaced with a woman librarian.

    Without the local library, which gave me access to any books and papers I needed would have been unable to do the research needed for articles, teaching, and writing books. While bringing up twins, working, studying, and researching. And later introducing my grand-daughter to discovering information and to enjoy learning. Local libraries are more useful than one central library in a county, as they are also information centres, community centres, with activities and groups for all ages, and easily accessable. The libraries also need qualified librarians to run them. Something which has escaped certain County Councillors, who seem to think anyone can do this work.

    Manuscript Sources:

  • BM Addit. ms 2030.

  • BM Addit. ms 4507 f.4.

  • BM Addit. ms 6113.

  • BM Addit. ms 17492

  • BM Arundell 97.

  • BM Cotton, Caligula, E.1, f.42.

  • BM Cotton, Tiberius, E.8.

  • BM Cotton, Tiberius, B.1, f.199

  • BM Cotton, Vespasian, F.3, f.44.

  • BM Cotton, Vespasian, F.3, f.73

  • BM Cotton Vespasian C.4, f.237

  • BM Harleian ms 1447.

  • BM Titus A, XIII, 186.

  • BM Sloane 1047.

  • PRO SP 1/40 f.210.

  • PRO SP 1/46 f.169.

    Printed Sources - Primary and early.

    Most of the primary orginal research was done at a time when the British Library was still in the British Museum and the National Archives were in Chancery Lane. At that time I had access to these as was doing research for the Ministry of Works on the Hampton Court Clock, etc.

    The list has been updated to include additional references and sources which have been used since the original work (a spin off from the original Hampton Court clock booklet) and sources of books that can now be downloaded. Often for free. A list of websites that I found useful to check up on details or would be interesting to read for further information is included. As are some video and other material. However the dividing line between primary and secondary is not clear, as most are mixed. And since this research was carried out over several years a few of the sources have been hard to find again and people who had talked to are no longer around. Can be contacted by email with any queries or information.

  • Letters and Papers Foreign & Domestic Henry VIII. These weighty volumes are now available as free downloads, so have not listed every one individually. As summaries, they are useful for tracing actual letters and information. Much more accessible now! But still need to look at any relevant original surviving papers, letters, etc. as many notes and reports are summaries, and may have been misinterpreted.

  • Calendar of State Papers Spain. This has information on Katherine of Aragon and her sister Juana.

  • A History of the County of Essex: Vol.2(1907)

  • Antis: John. Garter King at Arms. Editor. The Register of the Order of the Garter, 1724.

  • Apian: Peter
    Astronomicum Caesareum

  • The Opening of the Tombs of the Dukes of Richmond and Norfolk, Framlingham, April 1841: the Account of the Reverend J.W. Darby1 JOHN ASHDOWN-HILL 2008 (2008_vol18_ashdown_hill_opening_of_tombs_richmond_norfolk.pdf) 1st published in The Ricardian Vol. 18, 2008. (Richard III Society).

    "On Easter Tuesday 1841,14 in the presence of the rector, the reader, the clerk, &c., it was ascertained that there was a vault (nine feet by six feet) under the tomb of the duke of Richmond, and on removing the bricks from the west end, there was found a skeleton entire, the coffin of wood having fallen to pieces. The body appeared to have been wrapped in many folds of cered cloth, and the teeth in the upper and lower jaw bones (fourteen in number in each) were quite perfect, and as the duke was only seventeen years old when [f. 8v] he died, this was without doubt his skull, and the body must have been moved with the tomb."

    Too young for wisdom teeth, and with a full set of the others for what would have been more than 10 years in perfect condition, he must have been healthy until his rather sudden end. Could have done with more information. It seems to be only the teeth that led to the identification. There is no indication, despite the guess work of Victorian writers, that Richmond was sickly and ailing with tuberculosis. This was a common cause of teenage deaths in the Victorian era, but not in the 16th century. Richmond seems to have been very fit and strong, before his sudden short fatal illness.

    Excavated remains of the tomb of the Duke of Richmond and some of the Howards which were buried in Thetford Priory, can be found in the Ancient House museum in Thetford.

  • Banners and Standards and Badges from a Tudor Manuscript in the College of Arms. Edited by Howard de Walden, 1904. The drawings were traced Thomas Willement around 1830 and later owned by John Gough Nicols. Copies used are from reproductions in his works.

  • Bauer: George (Agricola)
    De Re Metalica (1558)

  • Bell: Doyne C.
    Notices of the historic persons buried in the chapel of St.Peter ad Vincula, in the Tower of London with an account of the discovery of the supposed remains of Queen Anne Boleyn
    Notices of the historic persons buried in the chapel of St.Peter ad Vincula in the Tower of London

  • Bindoff: S.T. Editor:
    The House of Commons 1509-1558
    also can read online free in Google

  • Biringuccio: V.
    Pirotechnia (1538)

  • Black: William,
    On the Date and other Circumstances of the Death of the Painter Hans Holbein, as disclosed by the discovery of his Will. 1861

  • Boureanu: Radu Holbein, 1977

  • Bradbury: E. Architectural Sketches in and around Northamptonshire, 1894.

  • British History On-Line
    All the printed stuff once had to go to the British Library or a University Library before is now available from home. Was able to check up on my old notes here.

  • Brears: Peter
    All the King's Cooks, 1999, 2011
    Henry VIII's food and kitchens and Hampton Court.

  • Burnet: G. The history of the Reformation, 1865 edition. Now downloadable free eBook.

  • Byrne: Muriel St.Clare The Lisle Letters

  • Carey: Nessa Junk DNA (has how an apparent pregnancy can be a hydatiform mole - it looks like Anne Boleyn's second or third pregnancies which both ended in miscarriages, could have turned out to be this).
  • Cavendish: George.
    Life and Death of Cardinal Wolsey.
    now available as downloadable pdf.

  • CDC: Facts about Pneumonic Plague

  • Chappell, William. 1867.
    Some account of an Unpublished Collection of Songs and Ballads by King Henry VIII and his Contemporaries.
    Has words of Elizabeth's Song

  • Elizabeth's song (and other Tudor music) can be heard on this CD: Musica Antiqua of London, "Madame d'Amours" (obtainable from russiancdshop.com)

  • Childe-Pemberton: William S.
    Elizabeth Blount and Henry the Eighth with some account of her surroundings. 1913.
    now available as pdf or here.

  • Collier: J. Payne. editor. Trevelyan papers prior to 1558. Camden Society 1857.

  • Cruickshank: Charles. Henry VIII and the Invasion of France. A detailed account of Henry VIII's war in 1513. It shows how costly and miserable it was to others but not to Henry who suffered no discomforts or lack of food, in his portable palace. (Meanwhile his wife was left to defend England from the opportunistic invastion from Scotland.)

  • Dictionary of National Biography -

  • Edwards: R.D.
    Ireland in the Age of the Tudors:
    The Destruction of Hiberno-Norman Civilization

  • Ellis: Steven
    The HistoricalJournal,23,3(1980),pp.497-519. 497
    downloadable as pdf

  • Ellis: Henry
    Original Letters Illustrative of English History etc. 1824

  • Emerson: Kathy Lynn,
    A Whose Who of Tudor Women

  • Ffoulkes: Charles
    Armouries of the Tower of London, Vol.1, 1916

  • Fox: John.
    Acts and Monuments (Foxe's Book of Martyrs)
    1563 (reprinted 1965 which is when I bought it) - gruesome, so gave my copy to local vicar.

  • Fox: Julia.
    Sister Queens 2010. Juana, and Katherine. Both sisters had unhappy lives.

  • Froude: J. A.
    The Divorce of Catherine of Aragon: The Story as Told by the Imperial Ambassadors Resident at the Court of Henry VIII
    now online free

  • Hall: Edward
    Chronicle....(published in 1548 after Hall's death)
    other editions 1550, 1809, 1904 and now downloadable as free pdf.

  • Hayward: Maria
    The Great Wardrobe Accounts of Henry VII and Henry VIII
    Dress at the Court of King Henry VIII (currently mad price get from library
    Rich Apparel: Clothing and the Law in Henry VIII's England

  • Hay: Denys. editor The Letters of James V. 1954. HMSO. Edinburgh.

  • HerbalGram. 1998; 42:26-32 American Botanical Council
    about Henry VIII's lotions and potions.

  • Hodgkinson, Brian; Peter Efford: "Thrice Mayor of Lincoln", Lincolnshire Past & Present, Spring 2016.

  • Hopper, Clarence. (editor) London Chronicle during the reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII. 1858 Camden Society.
    In the reign of Henry VIII, years in London were marked by names of London Mayors, - George Monoux who founded the school in 1512 that my late sister and myself went to was Mayor in 1514.

  • Howarth: John. The History of Sheriff Hutton Castle. (he and his wife lived there and showed us round, when visited the first time - )

  • Jerdan: William - editor
    Rutland Papers
    published by Camden Society 1842

  • Journals of the House of Lords Vol. 1 1509-1577 HMSO 1888. (now online)

  • Kibbee: Douglas
    Bilingual Lexicography in the Renaissance: Palsgrave's English-French Lexicon (1530)

  • Leland: John. Itinery - 1535-1543. Reprinted in paperback (actually half a shelf full of volumes), 1964.

  • Letters and Papers foreign and domestic of the reign of Henry VIII. HMSO.
    Now online. (http://www.british-history.ac.uk). Also each volume available as downloaded pdf from various sites. Best downloaded as PDF. ePub and Kindle versions done automatically can be very muddled.

  • Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII: pt.1-2. 1515-1518, Great Britain. Public Record Office - 1864

  • MacKay: Lauren
    Inside the Tudor Court,
    pub. by Amberley, 2014.
    The records of the Imperial Envoy Eustace Chapuys, sent to discover what was going on in England and protect Queen Katherine and Princess Mary, at the time of Henry VIII's divorce.

  • Merriman: R. B. Life and Letters of Thomas Cromwell, 1902, reprinted 1979. Now as download pdf.

  • Newton, Margaret,
    South Kyme, the history of a Fenland Village, 1995.
    very useful

  • Nicolas: Nicholas Harris, 1827. The Privy Purse Expences of King Henry the Eighth from Nov 1519 to December 1532. (now available as downloaded pdf)

  • Nicols: John Gough: editor

  • Norton: Elizabeth, Lincolnshire History and Archaeology Vol 48, 2013.
    Margaret Skipwith of South Ormsby: A Lincolnshire Mistress to Henry VIII.

  • Nouvelle Biographie Generale.

  • NPG: Holbein and the Court of Henry VIII, 1978

  • Parker: K.T.
    The drawings of Hans Holbein in the collection of His Majesty the King at Windsor Castle 1945.

  • History of Parliament Online.
    The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1509-1558, 1982
    Tailboys, Sir Gilbert (by 1500-30), of Kyme, Lincs.

  • Penguin Book of English Verse, 1962.

  • Rycharde (Richard) Pynson. An early Tudor printer and publisher based in London. Something of a pioneer in this new media he published amongst many other things, the souvenir booklet for Henry VIII's coronation. One of the other books his printing firm published was: "A newe tracte or treatyse moost profytable for all Husbandemen, and very frutefull for all other persons to rede". A handbook first published in 1523 for what was then the majority - living on plots of land which had to be used for crops, cows, sheep, etc. and nearly self sufficient. Later editions became religious and boring, however a reprint of a 19th century version is available.

  • Puttenham: George
    The Arte of English Poesie

  • Quinn, David
    Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond, and his connexion with Ireland, 1529–30.

  • William Jerdan: editor
    Rutland Papers

  • Sandeman: J. G., 1912
    The Spears of Honour.

  • Also found out more about the Kings Spears in the Leeds Armouries at a seminar where we could hold, examine and try out a number of weapons belonging to Henry VIII. We were allowed to take pictures but without flash. A few are on the website.

  • Sanders: Nicolas
    Rise and growth of the Anglican schism 1585
    translated with notes by David Lewis, 1877.

  • Christopher Saxton's 16th century maps. 1992 reprint. Although not a lot of help if you want to find a place yourself today, they do show the counties as they were in the 16th century.

  • Siemens: Raymond
    Henry VIII as writer and Lyricist
    in: The Musical Quarterly Sept. 24, 2009

  • Stow: John The Survey of London, 1598. Reprinted 1965.

  • Todd: G. W.
    Castellum Huttonicum, Some Account of Sheriff Hutton Castle etc. 1824.
    now a free download.

  • Tudor Royal Letters, the family of Henry VIII, 1972.

  • The Tudor Remedy Book, 1996

  • Richard Turpyn:
    The chronicle of Calais.

  • Tully: James
    The Crimes of Charlotte Brontë (this gave the idea that antimony as a poison could mimic the symptoms of an infection with a cough).

  • Victoria County History, Dorset, Vol. 2, pt. 2, 1970.

  • Watson, Foster: (translator) Tudor School-Boy Life - The Dialogues of Juan Luis Vives, 1908

  • White: J. H. editor The complete Peerage Vol.10, pp. 829-30.

  • Wood: Mary Anne Everett
    Letters of Royal and Illustrious Ladies of Great Britain
    includes letter from Elizabeth Tailboys etc.
    can read online as free Google book or download as ebook
    Has letters written by Lady Elizabeth Tailboys the mother-in-law of Elizabeth (same name) - the footnotes by the editor are often inaccurate and you feel she is just guessing sometimes - but the letters are interesting.

    Secondary Printed Sources and Further Reading:

    There is not actually a clear division between primary and secondary printed sources. And no reason to think that an earlier book would have more reliable information than a later book. It is as likely to be the other way round.

  • Aitchinson: L.
    A History of Metals, Vol.2

  • Anglo: S.
    Spectacle, Pageantry and Early Tudor Policy. 1969.

  • Ashdown: D.M.
    Royal Paramours, 1979.

  • Ashdown-Hill: John
    John Howard and the House of York
    Has some information about the 1841 discovery of Richmond's remains at Framlingham.

  • Ashdown-Hill: John
    Eleanor The Secret Queen
    Edward IV's wife he was still married to at the time of his wedding to Elizabeth Woodville. Which meant their children would be of dubious legitimacy. And one of these was Henry VII's wife. So this affected Henry VIII.

  • Ashdown-Hill: John
    The Dublin King
    John Ashdown-Hill has, and still is, producing a large number of books on this period in history and is one of those responsible for the identification and preservation of the remains of King Richard III. Have not listed all his works here.

  • Aslet: Clive
    The Story of Greenwich

  • Baigent: Michael
    The Inquisition, 1999.

  • Benger: Elizabeth (Miss) (1778 - 1827)
    Memoirs of the Life of Anne Boleyn.
    With a memoir of the author by Miss Aikin, 1827.
    Lucy Aikin added a lot of her own notes and opinions and might be held responsible for some bloopers
    Miss Benger had made use of some original sources such as Queen Katherine's letters to Wolsey in 1512/13.

  • Bordo: Susan
    The Creation of Anne Boleyn
    Not history but a socialogical or anthropological essay on the myths and legends surrounding Anne Boleyn and how they evolved since her execution.

  • Borman: Tracy
    Thomas Cromwell, 2014.

  • Bowle: J.
    Henry VIII, 1964.

  • Brears: Peter
    All the King's Cooks, 1999, 2011
    (insight into one reason Henry VIII got so fat!)

  • Bruce: M. L.:
    Anne Boleyn, 1972.
    The Making of Henry VIII, 1977.

  • Bryant: Chris
    Parliament the Biography Vol.1, 2014.
    This has the information about the involvement of Sir George Throckmorton, (p.114) and the meetings during the Parliament at the Queen's Head on Cripplegate, for dinner and supper, to have secret talks.
    Richmond appears to have been involved.

    More on Throckmorton in History of Parliament online.

  • Casady, E. Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey. 1938.

  • Chapman: Hester,
    Two Tudor Portraits, 1960.
    Anne Boleyn, 1974.
    The Sisters of Henry VIII, 1969.

  • Childs: Jessie
    Henry VIII's Last Victim, 2008, very informative. A lot more on the Howards than you can find in many other books. The best book for reading about them.

  • Clark: Stephan
    1000 Years of annoying the French
    useful historical roundup of the conflicts between England and France

  • Cornish: P. (author) and McBride: A. (artist)
    Henry VIII's Army
    These picture books can be more informative than certain of the academic works.

  • de Iongh: Jane
    Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Netherlands (translated and published by Norton).

  • Dobson, J. F. & Brodetsky, S: Nicolaus Copernicus De Revolutionibus, Preface and Book I., 1947

  • Dodds: M. H. and R.
    The Pilgrimage of Grace and the Exeter Conspiracy, 1915.

  • Duncas, A. M. Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. 1976

  • Duncan, J and Derrett, E:
    Henry Fitzroy and Henry VIII's "Scruple of Conscience".
    Renaissance News, vol: 16,no.1 Spring 1963, pp. 1-9.

  • Dyer: Alan
    The Influence of Bubonic Plague in England 1500-1667

  • Eichberger: Dagmar
    Noble Residence for a Female Regent: Margaret of Austria and the "Court of Savoy" in Mechelen.

  • Ellis: Richard
    History of Thornbury Castle

  • Ellis: Steven
    Thomas Cromwell and Ireland, 1532-1540
    The Historical Journal, 23,3 (1980) pp. 497-519

  • Elton: G. R.
    Policy and Police, 1972.

  • Erickson: C.
    Bloody Mary, 1978.

  • Falkus: Christopher (Editor)
    The Private Lives of the Tudor Monarchs, 1974.

  • Fletcher: A.
    Tudor Rebellions, 1968.

  • Fletcher: C.
    Our Man in Rome: The Divorce of Henry VIII. (also on Kindle).

  • Foss: Michael
    Undreamed Shores, England's wasted Empire in America

  • Fox: Julia
    Jane Boleyn, 2007

    Sister Queens, 2011 (Catherine of Aragon and Juana of Castile)

  • Frieda, Leonie:
    Catherine de Medici: 2003

  • Ganz: P.
    The Paintings of Hans Holbein, 1949.

  • Gidlow: Christopher
    Life in a Tudor Palace
    A good idea: a day at Hampton Court when Henry VIII is there.
    Has some useful information.
    eg: although Henry VIII forced everyone in his country to change their religion so he could take all the church property he wanted, his own palace chapels carried on the same rituals as before.
    (on kindle)

  • Gimpel: Jean
    The Medieval Machine
    originally published as: La révolution industrielle du Moyen Age

  • Giono: J.
    The Battle of Pavia. 1963
    There is also a gallery devoted to the battle of Pavia at the Leeds Armouries

  • Goadby: R
    A New Display of the Beauties of England, 1776

  • Goodman: Ruth
    How to be a Tudor
    Ruth Goodman is famous for her participation in re-enactments of life in the past. This book is not quite as good as watching the programmes on television as they deal with a particular time and place, but it does give information on how most of the people at the time, lived and coped, with various details like cooking, brewing, housework, clothes making, etc. Mostly activities Ruth has had a go at herself.

  • Goodwin: George
    Fatal Rivalry, Flodden 1513.
    More insight into the relationship between England and Scotland. And the influence of Scotland on England.

  • Guy: John
    Wolsey and the Parliament of 1523

  • Hakluyt Voyages. Many of the published accounts seem to have been edited by the wrong people, eg the edition where the editor insisted that it could not be geese but penguins that were eaten in the Arctic. That was a Penguin edition too!

    More on Richard Hakluyt.

  • Hammond: John H.
    The Camera Obscura, 1981.

  • Harrington, Peter - illustrated by Brian Delf
    The Castles of Henry VIII, 2007

  • Hart: Kelly
    The Mistresses of Henry VIII, 2009, 2011
    Her book is very interesting. She used my earlier Tudor Bastard book as one of her references. Similar but not the same as the book by Philippa Jones.

  • HerbalGram. 1998; issue 42, pp. 26-32
    Herbalist's Charter.
    With information on Henry VIII's lotions and potions.

  • Hobden: Heather
    Tudor Bastard: King Henry VIII's Son, Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset and His Mother, Elizabeth Blount, 2001
    This followed an article that was published - as there now seemed to be much more interest in the Tudors again. (See notes)

  • Hobden: Heather
    Clocks: Vol.3, no.2, August 1980. The House of Leprous Maidens.

  • Hobden: Heather
    Inside the Hampton Court Clock. Latest edition was the most informative. It is no longer in print but a free copy can be downloaded from the cosmicelk website: http://www.cosmicelk.net

  • Hoskins: W. G.
    The Age of Plunder, 1976

  • Hutchinson: Robert
    House of Treason (about the Howards)
    Thomas Cromwell

  • Iongh: Jane de
    Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Netherlands.

  • Ives: Eric
    Eric Ives contacted me to discuss some material on Jane Grey.

    Faction at the Court of Henry VIII, the fall of Anne Boleyn. History, Vol. LVIII. 1972.
    The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn. 2004
    Detailed study. Also found there was no evidence that Anne Boleyn spent any time in the service of Queen Claude. The book has a great deal of interesting and factual information and helps put those complicated times into some order. Recommend it.

  • James: M. E.
    Obedience and Dissent in Henrican England:
    The Lincolnshire Rebellion, 153. Past and Present Vol.48, 1970.

  • Jennings: Charles
    Greenwich, 1999

  • Jordan: W.K.:
    Edward VI: The Young King, 1968

  • Jones: Philippa
    The Other Tudors Henry VIII's mistresses and bastards, 2009
    Her book is very interesting. She used my earlier book as one of her references. Similar but not the same as the book by Kelly Hart.

  • Karlen: Arno
    Plague's Progress

  • Lacey: R.
    Henry VIII, 1972.

  • Law: Ernest
    England's First Great War Minister: 1916 (Wolsey)
    The History of Hampton Court Palace.

  • Lehmberg: S. E.
    The Reformation Parliament 1529-1536.
    Needed more detail to be really useful. Most of the information I used such as when the Duke of Richmond was present and when he was not came from primary sources - the actual parliamentary records, and are also printed and now available online.

  • Lehmberg: S. E.
    The Later Parliaments of Henry VIII 1536-1547 CUP, 1977 (see above note)

  • Levine: M.
    Tudor Dynastic Problems 1460-1571. 1973.

  • Lindemann: Mary
    Medicine and Society in Early Modern Europe

  • Lipscomb: Suzannah,
    1536, The Year that Changed Henry VIII
    A good point and her most interesting book.

  • Luke: M.M.
    Catherine the Queen, 1967.

  • McGrigor: Mary, 2015
    The Other Tudor Princess

    The story of the daughter of Henry VIII's elder sister Margaret
    who she left in England.

  • Meide: Chuck
    The Development and Design of Bronze Ordnance, Sixteenth through Nineteenth Centuries
    downloadable pdf. 2002

  • Milton: Giles
    Big Chief Elizabeth
    account of the 1536 expedition

  • Moorhouse: Geoffrey
    The Pilgrimage of Grace, 2003
    Great Harry's Navy, 2006
    These books are both very good and informative.

  • Morris: S and Grueninger: N
    In the footsteps of Anne Boleyn
    A tour of various buildings believed to be associated with AB.

  • Murphy: B.A.
    Bastard Prince, 2001, published PhD thesis
    many details

  • Norton: Elizabeth
    Bessie Blount, 2011 (also kindle) a lot of well researched detail including family trees

    Margaret Beaufort, (also kindle version) - an interesting biography of this formidable woman.

    Anne Boleyn in her own words and the words of those who knew her. (Amberley 2011). Copies of contemporary or near contemporary documents. Which makes this book useful.

  • "Onyeka", "Blackamoores. Africans in Tudor England".
    Has a small amount about the attendants of Katherine, who accompanied her to England. Many of them remained in her service or tried to stay in contact right until she died. Also other people of African (mostly southern Spain and other Mediterranean origins) in England at that time such as John Blanke the trumpeter (seen in illustration).
    The young ladies in Katherin's entourage were from what is now Southern Spain (Grenada mostly) which was conquered by Katherine's mother Isabella, and is where Katherine and her sisters were brought up. The hooped skirts and dark complexions of the ladies in Katherine's entourage were remarked on rather rudely by Thomas More, but the fashions of the future Queen and her ladies caught on with English women. At that time with the limited sanitation, a long wide hooped skirt was useful, however the fashion for hooped skirts has kept repeating - the last time it was really popular was late 1950s after which the shorter skirts and preference for trousers killed it.

  • Parmiter: G. de. C.
    The King's Great Matter, 1967.

  • Penn: Thomas
    Winter King, 2011
    (one of the better books about Henry VII)

  • Perez: Joseph The Spanish Inquisition, 2006.

  • Perry: Maria
    Sisters to the King, 1998
    - lots of interesting information

  • Pipe: Jim
    The Tudors, A Very Peculiar History
    part of a series - a good introduction for pre-teens and anyone else new to the subject.

  • Pollard: A. F.
    Wolsey, 1902.

  • Porter, Linda:
    Mary Tudor, the First Queen. Met Linda Porter, she has great insight into Mary's life and character.

  • Prescott: H. F. M.
    Mary Tudor, 1958.

  • Raymond, James
    Henry VIII's Military Revolution,2007

  • Reid: R. R.
    The King's Council in the North, 1921.

  • Reinhardt: H.

  • Repcheck: Jack
    Copernicus' Secret, 2007
    Lots of useful information putting Copernicus's work into context.

  • Reynolds: E. E.
    Thomas More and Erasmus, 1965.

  • Richardson, Thom Workshops at Greenwich.

  • Ridley: J.
    Thomas Cranmer,1962.

    Mary Tudor, 1973.

  • Ridgeway: Claire
    The Anne Boleyn Collection
    The Fall of Anne Boleyn: A Countdown.

  • Routh, C. R. N.
    Who's Who in History, Vol. II, Tudor England,1964.

  • Ryrie: Alec
    The Sorcerer's Tale, 2008.
    An interesting insight into a seamy side of Tudor life. And one of Richmond's close friends.

  • Salgado: Gamini
    The Elizabethan Underworld, 1977

  • Scarisbrick: J.
    Henry III, 1968.

  • Seward: Desmond.
    Prince of the Renaissance, the life of Francois 1. 1973
    The Last White Rose (very useful and interesting)

  • Shulman: Nicola
    Graven with Diamonds
    about Wyatt

  • Skidmore: Chris
    Bosworth: The Birth of the Tudors
    A usefulinformative book

  • Sim: Alison
    The Tudor Housewife
    Pleasures & Pastimes in Tudor England

  • Smith, L. B.
    Henry VIII, 1964.

  • Starkey, David
    Henry Virtuous Prince, 2008.
    (seems an odd thing to say about Henry VIII)

  • Stevens, John
    Music and Poetry in the Early Tudor Court

  • Strong: R.
    Holbein and Henry VIII, 1967.

  • Susan Scott, Christopher Duncan
    Biology of Plagues

  • Suckling: Alfred, Rev. (1796-1856)
    Memorals of the Antiquities and Architecture, Family History and Heraldry of the County of Essex. (1845)

    (Was looking for the sources of some dubious information - this came near)

  • Mark Taviner, Guy Thwaites, Vanya Gant:
    The English Sweating Sickness, 1485-1551 - A Viral Pulmonary Disease? (from Medical History, 1998, pp 96-98)

  • M.A.Waugh Veneral Diseases in sixteenth century England

  • Terjanian:Pierre
    The King and the Armourers of Flanders

  • Tremlett: Giles
    Catherine of Aragon: Henry's Spanish Queen, 2010
    Interesting as has more on her earlier background than have found in other biographies. Kindle, and paperback.

  • Tully: James
    The Crimes of Charlotte Bronte, 1999
    fiction, but gave idea of the unnatural alternative to "phthisis"

  • von Habsburg: O,
    Charles V, 1967.

  • Waldman: M.
    The Lady Mary, 1972.

  • Ward: Anne,
    The Lincolnshire Rising, 1536. 1986 (to celebrate it at Lincoln Castle).
    Discussed the causes and what happened with Anne who as a local historian was involved in the celebrations.

  • Watts: Karen
    Tournaments at the Court of King Henry VIII

  • Weir: Alison:
    The Lady in the Tower. 2009.
    Anne Boleyn's last days.
    The evidence gathered on Henry VIII's orders to get rid of Anne after yet another miscarriage. She shows Cromwell as the one who wanted to destroy Anne, but he was carrying out Henry VIII's orders. (And was to become a victim himself later).

  • Weir: Alison
    Mary Boleyn: The Great and Infamous Whore.2012
    In fact those and other rude comments were all made after Anne's execution and refered to her not her sister. This book is much more detailed than the one by Josephine Wilkinson. Alison Weir does observe that in fact Anne Boleyn was not in the entourage of Queen Claude. Alison Weir analyses a great deal of information and found this very useful. Alison Weir's historical works get better and better, as history, since she shows more and more in her books when there is not any firm evidence of what happened and the different accounts.

  • Weir: Alison
    The Lost Tudor Princess, A Life of Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox.
    A big book with lots of information about Henry VIII's niece. Like her cousins she had problems and conflicts.

  • Wilkinson: Josephine
    Mary Boleyn, 2010.
    This book on Mary Boleyn does help fill in the stuff that earlier historians omitted and is interesting to read as well.

  • Wilkinson: Josephine
    The Early Loves of Anne Boleyn. More about Anne Boleyn and what she got up to and who with, before targeting Henry VIII. This was useful. It is also an interesting read.

  • Williams: H. Noel:
    Henri II, his court and times. 1915.

  • Williams: N.
    Henry VIII and his Court. 1971.
    The Cardinal and the Secretary. 1975.

  • Williamson, Hugh Ross
    Enigmas of History, 1957 (including Mark Smeaton)
    One of those books with odd bits of interesting information from primary sources.

  • Willshire: William
    The Stranger's Guide to Hampton Court Palace and Gardens, 1867

  • Wilson: Derek
    Hans Holbein, Portrait of an Unknown Man, 1996

  • Wroe: Ann
    Perkin a story of deception, 2004. Very thorough but still leaves a mystery. Was he the real Richard? It seems he might have been - hence Henry VII's determination to find his "real" background and name, and his cruel revenge both on "Perkin" and on the Earl of Warwick - the "3rd prince in the tower" put there by Henry VII.

  • Zuckerman: Larry
    The Potato: From the Andes in the 16th Century to Fish and Chips.
    Includes the sweet potato which is not actually a potato. Has about Henry VIII's addiction to the sweet potato - and not just because it tastes nice. He thought it would help him in his love life.

  • Zupanec: Sylwia
    The daring truth about Anne Boleyn
    also notes that there is no evidence that Anne Boleyn was employed at the court of Queen Claude and gives some additional evidence for this conclusion. This fits in with the work done by the late Eric Ives.


  • The Mary Rose - one of Henry VIII's warships. First built in 1512, major refits in 1527/9 Portsmouth, and in 1536 when her burden was increased from 500 tons to 700 tons. The museum is interesting as shows the ordinary possessions of the unfortunate men on board when it sunk, as well as the cannons and other weapons.

  • Leeds Armouries museum. Free. Very interesting. To get there follow the signs once you are in Leeds (can find yourself driving round and round in a circle). The museum is by the river and near a big car park.

  • National Gallery London.

  • National Portrait Gallery London.


  • Stadel Museum Frankfurt:

    More about the portrait, its history and the costume and flowers in website.

    This portrait was painted with egg tempera on poplar wood, a technique still in use in Italy, Greece and Russia in the early 16th century. In North West Europe by then, artists (like Holbein) preferred to use oil paints. The date, artist and sitter are still not known. It was once thought (wrongly) to be of Lucretia Borgia, later (also wrongly) thought to have represented the goddess Flora. It has been dated about c. 1515-1520, the date is thought to be very likely, 1518. It is currently but not certainly, attributed to Bartolomeo Veneto, who had been a pupil of Bellini. Mostly known for his portraits full of symbols. This attribution is in doubt. It is not signed by him - he always painted his signature as if on a piece of paper or small scroll, in his paintings. It is also not in his style, the women in his paintings tend to be slightly doll-like, and although wired wigs and hair pieces freqently appear in his female portraits, they were a current Italian fashion. Original is now in the Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main, this illustration is from a copy. The bared breast, is characteristic of contempary "nymph" costume in masques. A bared breast was also used in portraits to symbolise a young mother. (As in pictures of the madonna and child).

    The artificial looking, posy of open flowers is likely to have added for symbolic reasons for the portrait, and they convey a message (see below). Her pretty garnet pendant is typical of the type of jewrellry worn in England then. Pictures of the goddess Flora usually showed flowers coming out of her mouth and dripping all over. This is not Flora. Italian artists were employed by Henry VIII and Wolsey at that time (1518), however the history and provenance of this portrait is still not fully known. It is very unlikely to have been Lucretia Borgia who was born in 1480, had at least 12 possibly 15 pregnancies, and died June 1519, following the birth of a daughter who also died.

    All we can say for certain, is that Elizabeth Blount must have looked something like that picture at that event as she was about the same age as the girl in the portrait, and wearing an identical or at least, a very similar costume. The costumes for the masques at Henry VIII's court, were often bought (sometimes second-hand) from Italy, especially Venice, wire wigs and hair-pieces were a contempary Venetian fashion and seen in some of Veneto's pictures (hence perhaps the attempt at that attribution) and Italian artists were employed at that time by Henry VIII and Wolsey.

    In the Inventory made after the death of Henry VIII, amongst the masque costumes stored away were headresses which from the description could have originally been the same ones at the masque in 1518, that Elizabeth Blount was performing in. Which would have looked much like the one worn in the portrait. And other costumes like the green mantles etc.

    Symbolic meanings of the flowers (according to European traditions):
    the 3 daisies: one facing, one turned away, one very small: the daisy symbolised "loyal love"
    the anemone: unfading love, sincerity, expectation
    the crocus or saffron: "abuse not", happiness, "results of pleasures"

    - which would have fitted in well if this had been Elizabeth Blount...

  • Kunstmuseum, Basel:

    Coloured sketch by Holbein very probably of Henry Fitzroy aged about 8. Currently listed as "Bildnis eines Edelknaben mit einem Maki". It looks like the original of the painted sketch for a portrait by Hans Holbein which he did when he was was commissioned to paint a picture book for Richmond. It is in in the Kunstmuseum, Basel. When I saw it in 1970 and 1976 it was labled as King Edward VI. I could see it could not be as the clothes and hairstyle are from the 1520s. By the 1540s hair was cut much shorter and shirts tied up with high necks and collars. It did not look like Edward either. Holbein did one portrait of Edward when he was a toddler. Holbein died in 1543 so Edward's portraits when he was older are all by other artists. Now see it has been re-labled: "Bildnis eines Edelknaben mit einem Maki" so cannot have been the only one to notice. More about the portrait, its history and the monkey in website.

    Palsgrave sent a request to Henry VIII to send a painter to illustrate words, so the Prince (as Henry Fitzroy was referred to) could learn the names of things in Latin by looking at the pictures.

    The King recommended an artist from Basel, who had illustrated a book for Erasmus, painted his portrait, and was now staying with Thomas More working on the (now famous) portraits of his family. Hans Holbein was to be sent up to Sheriff Hutton when he had finished the work he had been commissioned to do for the King. In May 1527 Holbein was free to travel north to work on the picture books and also portraits at Sheriff Hutton.

    Palsgrave's Latin dedication on the the picture book Holbein worked on for the Duke of Richmond has survived.

    Ad illustrissimum Henricum ducem Richomontanium
    Quo Romana modo majuscula littera pingi,
    Pingi quo possit littera parva modo,
    Hic liber ecce tibi signis monstrabit apertis
    Princeps Aonii spes et alumne gregis,
    Qui tibi si placeat, quod certe spero futurum,
    Maima pro parvo munere dona dabis.

    (But no information so far on the rest of the book)

    Early in 1528, Holbein returned home to Basel to work on the sketches of the portraits he had done at Sheriffhutton, and in London and other work. The finished portraits were painted in oils on paper so easily transported by anyone he could find to carry them to England.

    It looks like this portrait was the original sketch that Holbein did of the Duke of Richmond. It survived as it remained in Basel. Holbein returned to England in 1533 when he was commissioned for Anne Boleyn's coronation.

  • Re: letter from Richmond to his father asking for a "harness". (armour). There is a collection of boy's armour on display in the Leeds Armouries. One is for a boy aged about seven or eight and could have been made at the time Richmond was waiting for his, but not enough information on this one. He would have needed a bigger outfit by the time he finished his Latin homework anyway. The others on display were made later and for James I's sons.

  • Original minature portrait of princess Mary (this is from a copy) is in NPG London. As is an orginal of the minature portrait of Queen Katherine - this picture is not the same as in museum but from a copy. The originals both come under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

  • 1534 medal of Anne Boleyn. Original now in British Museum. Replica. About the replica.

  • More on any other illustrations mentioned on the website

    some online references and sources plus other sources either used, and/or for further reference

    Food and associated supplies

    Meals were served on chargers which were large dishes usually made of pewter, and trenchers which by Tudor times were of wood rather than bread. plates, trenchers and wafers (including those made from sugar) used and eaten with the sweets and puddings.

    Tudor Health and the doctors

    The Sweat

  • Map of the English Sweating Sickness. Shows how the epidemic first started in England in 1485 at the time Henry Tudor invaded with his army from Brittany. They were thought to have brought it with them, but it seems unknown before this date. Spread to the whole of England in 1517. Was much worse in the epidemic of 1528 when it spread all over England and Wales (not Scotland and Ireland) and also through the north of Europe (but not France) all round the Baltic sea. The final major epidemic was just in central England, in 1551, but still devastating as it swept through the towns.

    Contemporary observations noted that young, rich males were most likely to die from "The Sweating Sickness". Was it caught from the creatures they killed and ate on their hunting and shooting sprees? This makes one of the suspected causes of the Sweat West Nile virus. Spread by mosquitos as malaria is, which was still endemic in England then, among the other targets for infection are horses, falcons, deer. All the sort of animals rich young men in the 16th century were in close contact with. And like other endemic mosquito borne diseases such as malaria (caused by a parasite the mosquito carries), dengue fever (one of the virus which can be transmitted by the mosquito), it had disappeared from England by the end of the 16th century. As the climate became colder the mosquito bite could give no more than an itchy bump.

  • Or it might have been some sort of coronavirus.

  • the Sweating Sickness"

  • SARS another contender for the Sweat". The first symptom is a cough.

  • The English Sweating Sickness, 1485-1551: A ViralPulmonaryDisease? MARK TAVINER, GUY THWAITES, VANYA GANT

  • Some more papers identify the Sweat with something caught from animals.

  • Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

  • anthrax

  • a talk on The Sweat

    The Sweat disappeared after the last and biggest epidemic in 1551 as suddenly as it began. Possibly due to the cooling climate. But also possibly, because there was increased immunity to it which was passed on to following generations, those who had little immunity mostly had not survived to have descendants.


  • Phthisis - used for any bug that infected the lungs and made you cough then - only later when pulmonary tuberculosis was widespread did it refer to that, hence the confusion in documents and other works edited in the 19th and early 20th century. Because pulmonary tuberculosis was such a common cause of death in young people in the 19th century, historians then tended to assume young people like the Duke of Richmond, had died from it, when in fact it is very unlikely.

  • Scrofula, the most common form of TB in the 16th century, tuberculosis of the glands in the neck - usually caused by drinking contaminated milk from cows with bovine tuberculosis. The most common form of TB before the 19th century. It was thought to be cured by the touch of the King and the ruling monarchs including Henry VIII, believed this and held sessions for it. It leaves characteristic scars in the neck. These can be seen in Holbein's portrait of Sir Richard Southwell at age 33, part of which is shown here.

    The Plague

  • origins of Yersina Pestis, cause of plague.

  • Marriott: Edward
    The Plague Race
    How the bacteria was discovered and named after Dr. Alexandre Yersin

  • more on plague

  • Europe's Plagues Came From China, Study Finds - NYTimes.com

  • The genetic code of the bacteria that caused the Black Death. The researchers extracted DNA fragments of the ancient bacterium from the teeth of medieval corpses found in London under what is now the Royal Mint. More Black Death victims recently found in London.

    The last serious epidemic of "the Plague" in England was in 1666. After that, although still in other countries, mainly warmer countries, it has not been known in England. Possibly because of the cooling climate, better and more sanitary housing in city centres (not everywhere though), and probably, the immunity of the surviving population. Although in cities especially, the population was always being augumented by immigrants who could bring these diseases with them.

    The Ague, Marsh Fever, Malaria

    Researchers trace origins of malaria parasite from African slave trade to South America

    Malaria and its complications was very common in the 16th century. George Tailboys' father was a victim of "marsh fever" which led to bouts of insanity, and led to permanent mental disability. Malaria and "the Sweat" may have both been caused by mosquitos, what is known is that both appear to have disappeared from England by the end of the 16th century. This could be attributed to the cooling climate which killed off the parasite, though not the biting mosquitos.

    Other disorders and remedies

    Some of the best sources of information online have disappeared.

  • BBC News - Summer was the most dangerous time for Tudors

  • The Tudor Remedy Book. 1996.

  • Summary of early 16th century medicine.

  • Early 16th medicine.

  • Simple guide to Henry VIII's remedies.

  • Henry VIII's health problems.

  • Henry VIII's bad legs.

  • Some of Henry VIII's remedies.

  • Contraception. Not something Henry VIII wanted to use. A condom was invented for François Ie for protection against VD. (Too late he already had Syphilis). It was already known and used in the Far East. It is certainly something Henry VIII should have used especially on his military expeditions to France, as he appears to have suffered from the results of not doing so. Hence a number of "oyntments" invented by his apothecaries "for the Kings grace to coole and dry and comfort the membre". Or "to dry excorations and comforte the membre". And so on.

    Medical Training

  • 1518 Royal College of Physicians founded with royal charter, after a petition from some of them headed by Thomas Lincacre. They wanted not a trade guild but an academic body which would control membership with exams. Despite many protests women were not admitted to the exams until 1909.

  • 1540 Henry VIII founded the Royal College of Surgeons. They were allocated 4 free bodies from the Tyburn gallows a year. Women were practising surgery and were always the midwives, but the first woman allowed an FRCS was in 1911.


  • Fagan: Brian
    The Little Ice Age

  • Little Ice Age

  • Climate in North America

  • Change in weather

  • Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie
    Times of Feast, Times of Famine: A History of Climate Since the Year 1000

  • books on climate


    Henry VIII's interest in embroidery an interest he shared with Jane Seymour (the other mutual interest seems to be eating lots of cholesterol rich food).

  • masking costumes part of Henry VIII's inventory.

  • Mary Rose exhibition it is the everyday objects and also the cannons and other weapons that are so interesting.

  • Ordinances of 1526

  • Museum of London on Tudors

  • House of Lords Journals

  • accidents

  • Inventory taken after Henry VIII died - the summary with links, also shows the weapons, shipping etc. - it all belonged to Henry VIII.


  • Useful website to compare prices and values

  • The start of registration of births, marriages and deaths.


  • Italian craftsmen and artists working in Russia If that is a portrait of Elizabeth Blount then one of those artists could have been the painter.

  • Stadel Museum Frankfurt.

  • William Cornysh (junior). Wrote the music for Elizabeth's song. And other popular songs and music. His father wrote sacred music for Henry VIII's Chapel Royal.

    Elizabeth's song from: "Some account of unpublished collection of songs and ballads by King Henry VIII and his contemporaries" By William Chappell, Esq. F.S.A. Read May 16th,1867. This is on page 378 to page 379. "Now there is one love-song in the manuscript addressed to the King by some lady for whose sake, she tells us, the King had tilted at the ring, and in six courses had taken it four times"... "If any excuse could be made for Henry it would be from his receiving such amative addresses as this ... "there is in this a frankness discoverable on the lady's part, not warranted by the manners of the present time."

  • More on the manuscript.

  • Has Elizabeth's song and others from the Tudor court

  • DVD "Madame d'Amours, songs, dances & consort music for the six wives of Henry VIII. Musica Antiqua of London". Has "Whiles Lyfe or Breth".

  • Siemens: Raymond
    Henry VIII as writer and Lyricist
    in: The Musical Quarterly Sept. 24, 2009

  • Kunstmuseum Basel the one with Holbein's sketch of Henry Fitzroy

  • Pynson the Printer

  • Holbein

  • Kunstmuseum, Basel

  • Skelton

  • Horenbout

  • 16th century cities

  • Holbein's 1527 map of world

  • The Ambassadors in the National Gallery

  • Explains the detail in the picture

  • teachers' notes on The Ambassadors

  • more on the lute and why it is placed by a skull.

  • Henry VIII's music

  • tapestries - Paris and Helen

  • Trojan war tapestries

    Events and wars:

  • Woolwich Dockyard

  • Deptford Dockyard

  • Deptford and Woolwich

  • Chatham Dockyard

  • Excavation of Tudor remains of Chatham Dockyard

  • useful idea - look up historical events. And see that while Henry VIII was bogged down in his own domestic affairs and ruining his country, his rivals Charles V and François I were conquering new parts of the world.

  • Flodden. Worth noting that if it was not for Queen Katherine left to organise an army against the Scots invasion from the north, while her husband had taken the best of the troops, equipment, and all the boats to France, and winning the battle at Flodden where King James IV was killed, then England would have become part of Scotland instead of the other way round.

  • Letter Henry VIII wrote to Wolsey mentioning his wife's pregnancy.

  • The Field of Cloth of Gold.

  • Therouanne

  • Ordinances of 1526

  • Henry VIII reading in his bedroom part of a ms. psalter commissioned by him.

  • Italian craftsmen and artists working in Russia

  • Treaty of London

  • "Treaty of Universal Peace"

  • (Cotton Ms. Vespasian F iii, f.73)Henry VIII's letter to Wolsey expressing concern about Katherine's pregnancy

  • Ellis: Steven
    The HistoricalJournal,23,3(1980),pp.497-519. 497
    downloadable as pdf

    Science and Exploration

  • The mythical Brasil which did not exist.

  • The International Fishery of the 16th Century

  • The Beothuk People

  • More on the Beothuk People

  • Richard Hore

  • one of those who went with Hore and told about the adventure later.

  • Hore expedition

  • National Maritime Museum

  • Peter Apian, real name Peter Bienewitz, was a German astronomer and mathematician. Born 1495, died 1552. Produced maps of the world and of the skies. Was later sponsored by the Emperor Charles V and his newer work Astronomical Caesareum was dedicated to Charles V. It contains his observations of the 1533 comet which showed that the comet must orbit the sun. Collaborated with instrument maker Gemma Frisus on this book. Many of the illustrations are also working diagrams of use to astronomers and navigators. His books on mathematics and astronomy aided the navigation of the world.

    Elizabeth's family and connections

  • Events concerning Elizabeth's father, brother and nephew.

  • Henry Fitzroy, duke of Richmond and Somerset, Earl of Nottingham. Son of Elizabeth Blount and Henry VIII.

  • This is a very good website - can find all sorts of useful information on it. And he gave me a very interesting book on Patagonia.

  • Owen Glendower the Welsh Nationalist hero was an ancestor of Elizabeth Blount.

  • Gilbert Tailboys

  • awards to Gilbert Tailboys

  • Elizabeth Blount

  • Gilbert Tailboys

  • Elizabeth's daughter Elizabeth

  • brass of Elizabeth from her husband Gilbert's memorial.

    Elizabeth Blount's 2nd husband and family
  • Edward Clinton Elizabeth's 2nd husband

  • more on Clinton

  • Elizabeth's 2nd husband

  • more on Clinton

  • Elizabeth's daughter Bridget Clinton

  • Elizabeth's daughter Katharine Clinton

    English Royals and people and things connected to them

  • Katherine of Aragon. (see book list for more information).

  • letters by Katherine, Anne and other wives of Henry VIII

  • Katherine's pomegranate symbol

  • Margaret, Henry VIII's sister and Queen of Scotland (see book list for more references)

  • Mary, Henry VIII's sister, Queen of France then married Charles Brandon. (see book list for more references)

  • Henry VIII's tomb

  • Duke of Clarence father of Earl of Warwick, and Margaret Countess of Salisbury. (see book list for more references)

    Royals on European continent

  • Katherine's sister Juana. (see booklist for more references and information)

  • Margarete of Austria Katherine of Aragon's sister-in-law. (see book list for more references)


  • Henri, François' second son. Same age as Henry, son of Henry VIII. Picture of him as toddler cuddling a monkey. (see also Williams: Henri II, his court and times. 1915). Or is it? The portrait shows a blonde child, with blue eyes (Henri was dark haired, dark eyed according to his portraits, Henry was fair haired, blue eyed) and the attribution is to Henri 1519. Both Henry and Henri were born in the spring of 1519. Henri's christening was delayed to June and has also mixed up with that of Henry, despite no actual evidence for any public acknowledgement of the King's son at the time he was born, not until he was 6 years old.

    The picture is of a child about 3 - 5, so either the date of the portrait is wrong or the sitter. Need more information, but with what we have for this portrait so far, could have been either Henri or Henry, wrongly dated, or another high status child. (The average toddler then did not have ostrich feathered hats, pet monkeys, and their portait painted.) A portrait of Henry aged about 8, by Holbein, also mislabled a few times, shows him with a pet monkey, though not the same one. This was the marmoset belonging to his music teacher. Holding a monkey would stop the child moving too much.

  • François I of France. (more in book list)

  • François eldest son of François I of France. Slightly older than Richmond.

  • Charles, youngest son of François I of France. Younger than Richmond.

  • Madeleine, eldest daughter of François in poor health, but James V chose her as his bride. A month after arriving in Scotland she died.

  • Marguerite youngest daughter of François, 4 years younger than Richmond. The French princesses were kept away as much as possible from the Duke of Richmond - so clearly their parents did not want any friendship, romance and/or marriage offers to arise with the bastard son of the King of England.


  • Selim I ("Selim the Grim")

  • Suleiman I ("Suleiman the Magnificent")

    the Boleyns and their relatives

  • William Carey, Mary's husband

  • William Carey's sister Eleanor

  • Mary's 2nd husband

  • Mary Boleyn's Carey Children — Offspring of King Henry VIII? By Anthony Hoskins

  • William and Kate both descended from Mary Boleyn.

  • George Boleyn

  • Anne Boleyn's remains

  • secret love notes in their psalters

  • incestuous affair between Anne and George

  • Anne Shelton - Thomas Boleyn's sister.

  • Alice Clere - Thomas Boleyn's other sister.

  • Mary Shelton (then Heveningham), daughter of Anne Shelton, cousin to Anne Boleyn - friend, perhaps mistress to Earl of Surrey and possibly Henry VIII.

  • Margaret Shelton sister to Mary Shelton, known as Madge, she was Henry VIII's mistress and a number of others at the court.

    the Seymours who pushed the Boleyns out

    Seymour dynasty

  • Edward Seymour Richmond's Master of the Horses, he was now on the way up, thanks to his sister Jane.

  • Jane, Henry VIII's wife no.3


  • Richard Croke (Richmond's tutor and envoy to Italy for Henry VIII).

  • John Palsgrave: Richmond's tutor in French etc. had been tutor to his mother Elizabeth Blount.

  • William Saunders, Henry Fitzroy's music teacher. In April 1517, Cornish was paid for finding and teaching William Saunders, "late child of the Chapel". So it looks like he was a choir-boy and went on to be trained as a court musician, learning instruments like the virginals. And teaching music to Henry Fitzroy. Much like Mark Smeaton but without the celebrity. (In music and poetry in the early Tudor court)

  • Nicholas Udall Also called Woodall, Uvedale, etc. Born about 1504. Mentioned as a friend of Cromwell in 1522. With John Leland he helped organise and write for the entertainments for Anne Boleyn's coronation in 1533. Headmaster of Eton from 1534 until 1541 (soon after Cromwell was executed) when he was arrested under the Buggery Act for abusing his pupils. Flogging them to excess and sex acts. More details. He still had influential friends so he got away with a year in the Marshalsea prison. He helped Catherine Parr when she was Queen, translate some of the New Testament, and was also friends with the King's daughter Mary who translated part of the book of John as part of the same enterprise. He continued to organise and write for court and other entertainments, and was to become headmaster of Westminster school. Quotes from Udall's work. More on Udall. Udall's writing. More on his work.

  • the war of the Latin teachers between the supporters of medieval church latin and the supporters of "modern" latin which harked back to the Romans. They thought this was better adapted to modern times, and it was to be used for scientific works until into the 18th century.

  • William Horman, one of the warring Latin teachers, his work was influential
  • more on Horman

  • The other conflict was between the established monastic type idea of beating knowledge into pupils, as practised by Richard Croke, and enjoyed by Nicolas Udall, and the modern idea to getting the child to want to learn by making it interesting - as we see used by Richmond's second tutor John Palsgrave. He ordered picture books - and the fact that one had to be made shows how new an idea this was.

  • Juan Luis Vives: Tutor to Princess Mary - wrote The Education of a Christian Woman which was published in 1524.

  • Symonnet. Anne Boleyn's French tutor when she was living with the Regent. Only referred to by this surname. Could have been the, then, probably elderly if still around, Messire Boniface Symonnet, Abbé of the Moustier (Monastery) de Corne. Wrote a book on the Persecution of the Church. And was employed as tutor to the Regent's younger wards. What he was not was a governess called Simonette! As guessed and copied by Victorian writers. See also.

  • Claude Bouton. Not actually a tutor, he was an agent of the Regent, and of Charles V. As such he knew Thomas Boleyn and escorted his daughter Anne to the Regent where she was to be educated. Author of "Le Mirouer des Dames".

    Richmond's staff and companions

  • Henry Fitzroy's nurse, Agnes (or Anne) Partridge. Had a son of her own. Who was probably born just before Henry Fitzroy, so making her available to be chosen as Henry Fitzroy's nurse. Her son (also Henry but usually called Harry) was brought up with Henry Fitzroy, and shared his lessons and playtime along with some other selected small boys about the same age. And remained in his service.

    Anne (or Agnes) Partridge was paid 50 shillings a quarter (£4 a year). The King also gave her other occasional generous gifts. She loved hunting (she was allocated the use of two horses from the stables) and gambling. So did her husband Hugh Partridge. They had their own family home of Amburyhill, Gloucestershire, and also a house in London. In the parish of St.Andrew by the Wardrobe. Hugh Partridge's older brother, Sir Miles Partridge was a close friend of Henry VIII and in a game of dice with the King bet £4 100 against the bells of the Jesus Chapel in the churchyard of St. Paul's Cathedral. Which he won, and to the dismay of nearby residents, he had dismantled and the bells sold profitably for scrap.

    Anne Partridge was to continue to remain in Henry Fitzroy's household, on a salary of 50 shillings a quarter (every 3 months = £4 a year) plus a maid and two horses. Until the changing circumstances brought about by Henry VIII's plan to divorce the Queen, which meant Henry Fitzroy, duke of Richmond, could move from Sheriffhutton, back to be with his father at court. His household was then re-organised. In 1530, she received a "reward" from the King of 40s. (£2), and in May 1530, she was granted an annuity of £20. (Twice as much pension as she had been paid in wages). By this time her husband had died - she is named as "widow", the grant gave her an income. She lived in the house in London. Her son Harry Partridge remained in service with Henry Fitzroy. (Information from L&P and "A Who's Who of Tudor Women", by Kathy Emerson. And History of St.Andrew by the Wardrobe.)

  • Agnus Partridge's son, Henry (known as Harry) Partridge. Stayed on in service to the Duke of Richmond after his mother was retired. Continued in royal service after the death of Richmond. And looked after his mother after the death of his father Hugh Partridge. MP for Heytesbury in 1558.

  • William Parr uncle to Katherine, William and Anne Parr. Chamberlain to Henry Fitzroy at Sheriffhutton. Allowed 4 servants. Annual wages: £26 8s. 4d.

  • William Parr one of Henry Fitzroy's companions. Nephew of William Parr, brother of Katherine and Anne Parr.

  • Katherine Parr. Sister of William Parr. She was blonde - a lock of her hair survives. Which is genuine - as it was taken from her coffin in 1782. Katherine must have been attractive since she was to have 4 husbands - the 3rd being Henry VIII. The full length portrait identified variously as Lady Jane Grey and Katherine Parr looks just like Princess Mary, both she and her younger half-sister Elizabeth were treated to full length portraits arranged by step-mother Katherine who got on with both of them.

  • Anne Parr (sister of Katherine Parr and William Parr)

  • Thomas Magnus. (1463 or 4 to 1550). Listed as Mr. Magnus but actually Dr. (from Oxford 1520). On Richmond's Council. Allowed 4 servants. Among other appointments he was Prebendary of Lincoln (1522-1548) and also founded the Thomas Magnus grammar school, Newark, around 1530. (He was born in Newark). This was not long after he was spending time with James V of Scotland and with the Duke of Richmond at Sheriffhutton, and helping them write to each other and exchange gifts. Magnus left bequests to the school and to Newark-on-Trent, in his will.

  • when Magnus helped Wolsey

  • Sir William Bulmer (1492-1546), on Richmond's Council. Annual wages £ 33, 6s. 8d. and allowed 4 servants. His older brother Sir John Bulmer with his wife Margaret Stafford, was involved in the Pilgrimage of Grace and executed on 25th May 1537, John was hanged at Tyburn and Margaret was burned at the stake at Smithfield.

  • Sir Godfrey Fuljambe, on Richmond's council: £ 26 13s. 4d. a year

  • Thomas Fayrefax, Sergeant at Law, was on Richmond's Council. Wages £ 10, 2s.

  • Robert Bowes. £10, 2s. a year. Was knighted, became Warden of the Middle Marches, master of the rolls and privy councillor to Henry VIII.

  • In 1525, John Uvedale (or Woodall etc.) was Secretary to the Duke of Richmond, for the Council of the North, at Sheriffhutton. (Paid £10, 2 shillings a year). Then from 1533 he was Secretary to Queen Anne. And back to being Secretary of the Council of the North from 1536. Further information.More on John Uvedale. In Dictionary of National Biography.

    Others who were important at that time

  • Sir William Compton, Henry VIII's Groom of the Stool, (he wiped his bottom) who apparently helped arrange his meetings with mistresses, and was an enemy of John Blount, Elizabeth's father.

  • Thomas Wolsey

  • Thomas Cromwell

  • Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham.

  • Elizabeth Carew

  • Charles Brandon.

  • Lady Anne Hastings

  • Jane (Jeanne) Popincourt, friend of Henry VIII's sister Mary and gave her French lessons, she was Henry VIII's mistress for a short time.

  • Brian Tuke. The first Postmaster General.

  • Hall

  • Pietro Torrigiano

  • Pope Leo X

  • Ralph Fairfax last prior at Kyme Priory, the one in charge when Elizabeth Blount married and moved to South Kyme. see also

  • Jacobus Calchus a Carmelite friar - employed by Henry VIII to compile his case for divorce.

    Personal information on Henry VIII

  • This article shows how Henry expanded.

  • video on Henry VIII's diet.

  • A little video on this webpage shows how Henry changed between ages 17 and 40.

  • video on Henry VIII's medical problems.

  • Groom of the Stool

  • video on Tudor toilets.

  • Henry's beard issue.


    Associated with Richmond's mother and grandparents

  • Kinlet Now a school. More on Kinlet. Inherited by John Blount Elizabeth's father, and then after he died, by her mother, until her brother William was old enough.
    The house was totally rebuilt in the 18th century and the entire village demolished so not to spoil the view of the landscaped park. In the 19th century, the, by then, cash-strapped estate had a coal mine there. In WWII the house was used by the American Army, and after WWII became a school.
  • Knightley Hall. Inherited by Elizabeth Blount's mother. The family later moved back to Kinlet.

  • Tickenhill or Tickenhall.Tickenhill, Bewdley, where Katherine Blount joined Katherine of Aragon's court after she was married to Prince Arthur. And her father-in-law Sir Thomas Blount was Steward of the Royal park and Manor of Bewdley (which included the palace of Tickenhill.) The Tudor building was demolished and replaced in the 18th century.

  • Ludlow Castle the other place where Elizabeth Blount's mother was in attendance on Katherine of Aragon when she was married to Prince Arthur. And where later Princess Mary was sent to live as Princess of Wales, while her half-brother was sent to Yorkshire.

    Blackmore: birthplace of Henry Fitzroy:

  • Blackmore, a conservation area

  • Blackmore Priory

  • Blackmore Birthplace of Henry Fitzroy.

  • Jericho Priory

  • Jericho Priory
  • Priory church Blackmore

  • more on Blackmore

  • The Rev. Alfred Suckling on Blackmore

    other places near by where Henry VIII stayed

  • Havering atte Bower - now in the London Borough of Havering - north-east London, not very far from Gants Hill>

  • New Hall, Boreham, Essex. The Time Team excavation.

  • New Hall, and others

    New Hall, Boreham is not very far from Chelmsford.

  • Rochford Hall. Possible birthplace of Mary and Anne Boleyn. (Essex Girls!) Inherited by Thomas Boleyn from his mother Margaret Butler. He also inherited New Hall, Boreham (which he sold to Henry VIII, but his son George was to live there for a short time), in Essex, as well as Hever in Kent. Rochford Hall became the home of Mary Boleyn, and her second husband William Stafford. Rochford is near Southend Airport.

  • Pleshey Castle, Essex

  • Boleyns also in Kent. Hever Castle. Boleyn family home from 1462 to 1539. Then given by Henry VIII to Anne of Cleves. Open to public. Has been much changed since the Boleyns lived there, but has some things relating to Anne Boleyn on display.

    Places associated with Henry Fitzroy's mother

  • Rokeby

  • South Kyme

  • castle of South Kyme

  • Augustinian Priory at South Kyme

  • Goltho, LN8 5NF.

    Places where Henry Fitzroy lived or stayed for a while

  • Westminster Palace

  • Bridewell Palace

  • Hatfield

  • Greenwich Palace

  • The Story of Greenwich By Clive Aslet

  • Canford

  • Canford

  • Canford - yet another place turned into a posh boarding school, like Kinlet and New Hall, Boreham.

  • Woking

  • St.James
  • Tattershall

  • Colyweston

  • video of Colyweston

  • Sheriff Hutton Castle

  • Sheriff Hutton history

  • Video on Sheriffhutton when it was on sale

  • more history of Sheriff Hutton Castle

  • Bit more on Sheriff Hutton when it was sold.

  • advert

  • and when sale called off

  • church at Sheriff Hutton with tomb of Richard III's son

  • Hampton Court

  • Sheffield Castle. One of the places Richmond stayed in 1534.

  • Holt Castle. Where Richmond moved to from Sheffield.

  • Thornbury Castle, residence of the Duke of Buckingham, taken by Henry VIII who stayed there, now a hotel.

    Places in France

  • Fontainebleau and what a contrast to Sheriffhutton. Though Sheriffhutton did have plenty of guarderobes, so the toilets were better.

  • One of the places visited by Croke when he was sent on a mission to find legal and religious excuses for Henry VIII's marriage to Katherine of Aragon to be invalid.

  • Riom. Where George Boleyn tried to poison the Duke of Richmond.


  • Henry VIII's football boots.

  • what happened to Anne Boleyn's jewrellry?

  • gabled hood

  • French hood

  • farthingale

  • make-up

  • cosmetics and hygiene

    Some links about Jane wearing Katherine's brooch:

  • more on Jane Seymour wearing same brooch that had belonged to Katherine of Aragon
  • and more here on the jewels and their replicas.
  • and more who have noticed Jane wearing Katherine's brooch
  • and what did IHS on the brooch mean

    Textiles and furniture

    This is what Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond, had at the time he died.

    Some terms for fabric and furniture:

  • Bawdkyn - a silk cloth
  • Damask - a cloth woven in a pattern of two contrasting textures eg silk and linen, and/or colours
  • Sarsenet - a silk cloth (used for curtains round a bed etc.)

  • Wainscot - wooden panelling - usually oak - used for beds mentioned, with added carving.

  • Tester - a canopy over the bed.

    Richmond's furniture:
  • One of Richmond's beds had a tester covered with panels of cloth of gold, green tinsell (glitter) and crimson velvet, across the top of the bed with a fringe of gold and yellow, red and green silk. The bed itself was of carved panelled oak. And had curtains of red and yellow sarcenet (silk).

  • Richmond also had two beds for guests, also of panelled and carved oak, and covered with testers of yellow and blue damask with crimson velvet down the middle, fringed with yellow, red and blue silk, and with five curtains of sarsenet to close them all round. One of these curtains was "cutt at the hedd behind the bolster, when Sir William Courtney ley at my Lordes place at Canford". (Maybe he had drunk too much).

  • There was also a bed with a tester of cloth of gold of bawdkyn (a silk cloth), "well worne", which was fringed with green and red silk, and had a matcing counterpane ("counterpoint") and curtains of sarcenet in red and yellow.

  • and an apparently spare "sparver" which was a bed canopy, it was of "coarse purple tinsel", with a fringe of yelow and blue "coarse Paris silk....with 3 curtains of changeable sik sarcenet, curtain 3 yards long.
  • There were 12 "great beds" with bolsters One "grete Bedde of downe with a bolster" (a feather mattress) 7 pillows, 7 pairs of fustians (a thick strong fabric with twill weave usually) 12 pairs of sheets, 8 pillow biers (pillow slips), lots of counterpanes (they were not counted).

  • 3 "great carpets and 12 small carpets"


  • one cloth of state, of cloth of gold of damask fringed with gold and red silk
  • a chair of cloth of gold fringed with red silk and gold with 4 pommels of silver and gilt
  • a chair of crimson velvet, emboidered with the Duke's armes
  • a chair of crimson velvet fringed with silk
  • a chair of black velvet fringed with green silk

  • a cushion of cloth of gold of damask, quilted
  • a cushion of the same sorte of gold
  • a little cushion of the same fashion
  • 2 cushions of cloth of gold, bttoned and tasselled with gold, 4 tassells wanting
  • 2 new cushions, the one side cloth of gold, and the other side russett velvet with tassells.
  • 4 cushions of crimson velvet without knops 3 square and the other long
  • one cushion of purple velvet on the one side and the other side crimson velvet, knopped and tasselled.
  • a little cushion of russet velvet.


    Henry VIII stamped out Industrial Revolution


    Starving? Homeless? Unemployed? Disabled, unwell, or old to work? You could be imprisoned and flogged.

    Henry VIII's Acts against the poor 1530, 1536. His acts did not make life any better for the unemployed, and the proverty stricken families, elderly, disabled, or sick. He created more problems by closing the institutions that had provided care.


  • 1517: May Day uprising in London. Many children hanged.

  • 1523: Henry wanted more money for another pointless invasion of France. He called Parliament and they gave him much less than he had asked for.

  • 1525: Henry did not get any more money to fight France.

    Henry VIII had joined the war against France so The Field of Cloth of Gold had also been a big waste of public money.

    Henry VIII was to put all the blame on Wolsey.

  • 1536: Lincolnshire uprising against Henry VIII. Full information in: Geoffrey Moorhouse: The Pilgrimage of Grace, 2003.

    Then later when more of his schemes went wrong, on Cromwell.

  • Charles V had his own problems.


  • 1524 Henry VIII has jousting accident

  • Henry VIII played football

  • Golf: Katherine of Aragon played golf, which had originated in the Netherlands in the 15th century where they played it in the winter snow, and moved north. See also: early golf and more on early golf.

    Katherine mentions playing golf in a letter to Wolsey in 1513 when she was acting as Regent and had to make war on Scotland while her husband was making war in France "I thank God to be busy with the golf for they take it... for a pass-time, my heart is very good to it and I am horribly busy with making... standards, banners, and bagets. (badges)".

  • sports and games played

  • football

  • dangerous games

  • Jousting

  • tennis

  • tennis

  • Tudor sports and pastimes

  • Tudor sports

    Some information about hunting and hawking under horses and birds.

    Food and Drink

    Meals were served on chargers which were large dishes usually made of pewter, and trenchers which by Tudor times were of wood rather than bread. plates, trenchers and wafers (including those made from sugar) used and eaten with the sweets and puddings.

    More to come on supplies and kitchen in Duke of Richmond's household.

  • Cod Fishing

  • Brears: Peter
    All the King's Cooks, 1999, 2011

  • food

    Richmond's animals


    The animals in the Duke of Richmond's stables, were listed in the inventory at his death.

  • 4 great horses. One a jennet which was a horse for riding originally bred in Spain. This jennet was given to the Earl of Surrey, complete with saddle and harness of black velvet. The others were a black horse, a bay (brown with black mane, tail, ears), and a sorelled or chestnut. With the last three, went three saddles, one of green velvet with a mataching harness, fringed with green silk. A saddle of buff leather, with a harness of black velvet, trimmed with gilt work. And a saddle of white leather with a harness of black velvet with great gilt buckles. And also, bridles, cloths, and other things that went with the horses.

  • A little mule, with a harness of black velvet with studs of gilt work and a foot cloth of velvet.

  • 6 geldings, with bridles, saddles "and all other things belonging to them suche stuffe as it is". (Castrating a male horse not wanted for breeding stock, made it better behaved). Four were given to the Duchess of Richmond to convey her into Norfolk.

  • 3 mules for carriage (pack animals) "with all things to them appertaining". A mule is the result of breeding a male donkey with a female horse, the offspring is usually sterile.

  • 3 nags. Usually old worn out horses or poor quality ones. Only one was actually in the stable at the time of the inventory. There is a comment: (whereof one bought of my lord William, and one given to Mr. Cotton, which nags I have not seen.)

  • This website says how a horse was trained in the 16th century.

    Richmond's Dogs

    Some of the hunting dogs are mentioned in a letter to Richmond, from his cousin King James V, writing from Holyrood Palace, in January 1526, who was asking for some to be sent to him. He requested "three or four brace" (6 or 8) of the best in the country for hares, foxes, or other greater beasts. "With one brace of bloodhounds of the best kind that are good, and will ride behind men on horseback." In reply Richmond sent "ten couple of hounds of the best that I have proved of my own". He did not have any of the hounds that could ride behind men, but he did send his Yeoman Hunt - Nicolas Eton, to remain for 2 to 4 weeks, with the young King of Scots, to show how to hunt with those dogs.

    Although foxes are mentioned above, fox-hunting was not a sport then. They are just included with other small animals which could be chased by the hunters on horseback, like hares. Deer hunting was an established sport for the rich and a Deer Park was a must-have feature for a country home. Richmond's mother had the Deer Park at South Kyme renovated as an attraction for her guests. The deer parks were enclosed in such a way that deer could get into them - but not out again. They are marked on 16th century maps as little fenced enclosures.

    The dogs were kept in kennels near the mews and the stables.

    Richmond's Birds

    In central London there are still little roads called mews, with small houses and garages, backing on to bigger grander houses which face a wider more important street. In the 16th century the mews was the place where the hunting birds, mostly falcons but it was called hawking, were kept. Hawks are a little bigger than falcons. Other birds tended to be experimental or for show. After Henry VIII's mews in Holborn burnt down in a fire, he had a new mews built near his recently acquired palace of York Place. It was situated near where the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square now is. As it would have been not far from the new St.James's Palace, Richmond may have shared the Royal Mews for his own birds. And possibly the kennels, since his birds and his dogs are not mentioned in the inventory. Only the horses.

    The birds would not get mixed up since they all had metal labels fixed round a leg and attached by the "jesses" leather straps, which also kept the bird on the wrist (protected with a leather glove) when hunting, wearing a little hood, until it was time to take the hood off, release the bird and let it fly. The identifying metal ring was called a hawking vervel, and was a silver ring with a shield shape soldered on to it which had the coat of arms of its owner. Metal detectors find them.

    When Anne Boleyn was crowned Queen, she chose a falcon for her badge/logo. A falcon was part of the coats of arms of her ancestors, the Butlers, who were also Earls of Ormonde. But in her badge the falcon looks triumphant over the little red and white Tudor roses.


  • whole history of English loo here.

    Some restored guarderobes can be seen at Tattershall, and Gainsborough Old Hall (but you can't use them).

    Religion, and Richmond's own chapel

    Religion was the major controversy at the time, but Henry Fitzroy does not seem to have been very much interested. Although his wife Mary Howard, was later known as one of the ladies interested in the "reformed" religious ideas, she was still only 17 when widowed and a few public burnings and other forms of execution, had already showed it was wise to at least appear to conform with whatever the King decreed.

    Richmond's household included his own chapel which was set up wherever he was living, and followed the same routine regardless of the break with Rome. But then so did his father's chapel which despite all the changes due to his break with Rome, followed much the same routine. Just changing the Queen's name at times. (And don't mention the Pope).

    The chapel was requested while the newly invested Duke of Richmond was still on his way to Sheriff-Hutton. When they reached York on 17th August 1525, they were joined by John Uvedale, who was to be the secretary of Richmond's Council. In a letter from Richmond's council, to Wolsey it states: "We understand alsoo by the said John Uvedale that the kinges highnes whould send woorde unto your grace that we shulde make means and desir his highnes to have a Chapell, because the lorde Darcy and the lord Latymer have chapelles, which things we ensure your Grace was never done by us, ner yet spoken of, ner thoughte to be convenyente as yet." They left for Sheriff-Hutton on the 28th August.

    Wolsey therefore provided the furnishings and staff for Richmond's household chapel. This was a mobile arrangement, which like the beds and other furnishings was set up in whichever residence Richmond was moved to. A set of seven tapestries with illustrations of the Passion was provided to put around the walls of the chapel or a room to serve as one.

    At the time of Richmond's death, the chapel was already being put in place at Tonge.

    The list below has been slightly modernised with some explanations: There were altar cloths, two of blue bawdkyn (a silk cloth), two of green velvet and white bawdkyn panes. Four altar cloths of yellow and blue satin.
    (a note says 2 were at Tonges - which indicates that some chapel furnishings were still in place in Richmond's home at St.James Palace).
    A corporax of crimson velvet (covered the chalice). 4 corporaces of damask (the 4th at Tonges).
    A vestment of cloth of gold of damask and crimson velvet, pearled with all things thereunto appertaining.
    2 chasubles (a poncho-like garment worn over the vestment) for deacon and subdeacon of the same stuff, with all things to them belonging.
    A vestment of purple velvet, with angels and flowers with all things to the same belonging.
    2 chasubles for the deacon and subdeacon belonging to the same vestment.
    A vestment of plain purple velvet, with all things apertaining to the same.
    4 several vestments complete, of blue damask, wherof one at Tonges.
    2 copes of cloth of gold of damask paned with crimson velvet pearled.
    2 copes of purple velvet with angels and flowers embroidered.
    A canopy of green satin for the dean of the chapel.
    Travers of changeable sarcenet. (This was a sort of curtain which sectioned off an area to allow more privacy.)
    A Great Mass book written (ie manuscript), covered with old cloth of bawdkyn with 2 clapes of silver and gilt (added later: which 2 claspes remaineth with Mr. Stringer)
    2 Standards, whereof one great. (displayed coats of arms).

    As only a basic part of the chapel furnishings had been moved, they may have left the chapel in place at St.James' Palace, since Richmond's intended residence in Tonge, in Kent would only have been for a few weeks. He was to have been accompanying his father in inspecting the new Chatham shipyards.


  • Poisoning Act 1530. Made it treason to murder someone by poisoning them, the penalty if you were found out was being boiled to death. Hence 6 years later, part of the case against Anne Boleyn was attempting to poison, ex-Queen Katherine, and the King's children, Mary and Henry Fitzroy.

  • Treasons Act 1534. You were guilty of high treason if you "do maliciously wish, will or desire by words or writing, or by craft imagine, invent, practise, or attempt any bodily harm to be done or committed to the king's most royal person, the queen's or the heirs apparent (at that time this applied to baby Elizabeth), or to deprive them of any of their dignity, title or name of their royal estates, or slanderously and maliciously publish and pronounce, by express writing or words, that the king should be heretic, schismatic, tyrant, infidel or usurper of the crown...".

    This meant that it was very dangerous to say anything at all critical of, or against anything the King had done. It also abolished the tradition of sanctuary (ie hiding safely in a holy place like a shrine) for those accused of high treason. And Henry VIII was also afraid of rebellion as the Act made it treason to "keep or withhold from the King his castles, forts, ships, or artillery, and to fail to surrender any of them within six days of being commanded to do so".

  • The lawyer who stood up against Henry VIII's greedy demands in Parliament, but could not win in the end. Thomas More's execution on 6th July 1535, was watched by Richmond, at his father's command to stand in for him.

  • William Brereton

    was something of an odd man out in the line up of supposedly Queen Anne's lovers. He had been very big in Wales and the Duke of Richmond knew him as he was in charge of his castle at Holt. There is more on Brereton: In this talk by Prof. Eric Ives. Clearly he was someone a number of people wanted to see the last of. It is thought he may have been added on to the line up of Anne's lovers for convenience since there is no evidence they had an affair. He was very dominant in Wales and was Chamberlain of Richmond's castle of Holt. It is probably no coincidence that Cromwell already had plans to re-organise the political map of Wales by turning it into counties like England.

  • Trial of John Fisher who supported Katherine of Aragon, and his execution 22nd June, 1535. Richmond ordered to be present.

  • Anne Boleyn and others. Put link to this one as it shows many of the contradictions of the case made by Henry VIII against Anne, as seen by writers and historians - certain accepted facts are challenged by the feedback from others reading or research. It shows that clearly Cromwell was just carrying out the King's orders and that building a case against Anne which justified actual execution was a bit of a stretch even for those days.

    It also shows that each historian or author can come up with a different version - and research can take a long time (more than 70 years so far for me and still keep finding new stuff). Richmond had to be present at these trials and the executions on 17th June, 1536, as a substitute for his father who was spending the time renovating the Queen's accomodation for Jane Seymour.

  • Unfortunately for Anne Henry VIII was planning on the dissolution of all monasteries and convents so Anne could not just be persuaded to become a nun. But then that option had not worked with Katherine when the convents etc. were still going concerns. It might have worked with Anne, who had cousins and other relatives and friends who had been forced into convents and still managed to get a life within some rather permeable walls. (The counter-reformation when convents became more like women's prisons was yet to come).

  • George Boleyn wrote a poem or song, while he was waiting for his execution: (from http://www.elfinspell.com/Boleynstyle.html who took it from: Early Sixteenth Century Lyrics, edited by F. M. Padelford,1907.)

    O Death! rocke me asleep;
    Bringe me to quiet reste;
    let pass my weary, guiltles ghost
    out of my carefull brest.
    ring out my dolefull knell;
    let thy sounde my death tell.
    Death dothe drawe ny;
    there is no remedie.

    My paynes, who can expres?
    Alas! they are so stronge
    my dolor will not suffer strength
    my lyfe for to prolonge.
    Toll on, the passinge-bell;
    ring out my dolefull knell;
    let thy sounde my death tell.
    for I must dye;
    there is no remedie.

    Alone, in prison stronge,
    I wayte my destenye.
    Wo worth this cruel hap, that I
    should taste this miserie!
    Toll on, the passinge-bell;
    ring out my dolefull knell;
    let thy sounde my death tell.
    Death dothe drawe ny;
    there is no remedie.

    Farewell! my pleasures past;
    welcum! my present payne.
    I fele my tormentes so increse
    that lyfe cannot remayne.
    Toll on, the passinge-bell;
    rong is my dolefull knell;
    for the sound my dethe doth tell.
    Death dothe drawe ny;
    there is no remedie.

    Sound my end dolefully
    for now I dye.

    And in a poem written about George and his execution: (in: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/Bios/GeorgeBoleyn.htm).

    "Rochford, haddest thou been not so proud,
    For thy great wit each man would thee bemoan,
    Since as it is so, many cry aloud
    It is great loss that thou art dead and gone."

  • video on the work of a Tudor executioner.

  • lawyers

  • Buggery Act 1533. Intended originally to catch out some monks enjoying unconventional sexual activities, to aid the planned closure of the monasteries. Probably not difficult to find such considering the all male separation from the outside world. One of the earliest to be convicted under the act was the Headmaster of Eton, Nicholas Udall. Who had been abusing school boys in his care for some years. He had influential friends including Cromwell. His arrest came soon after Cromwell had been executed. Udall had some other influential friends he could appeal to, so he only got a year in prison instead of execution. He later became Headmaster of Westminster school. (See more on Udall under "teachers"). The Buggery Act was repealed by Mary I, another of Udall's friends (he had helped her translate the Gospel of John for publication when Katherine Parr was Queen) and she was to enjoy Udall's comedy "Ralph Roister Doister" performed for her court. Mary had a sheltered life and may well have known nothing about the darker side of Udall's character. The Buggery Act was brought back by Elizabeth I and not repealed until 1967.

    Other useful sites and links:

  • early article that I did for Roger Parson's website - it restarted it all off again.

  • This is a very good website for the Tudors. And he gave me a very interesting book on Patagonia. Which is a very interesting place.

  • free books on 16th century history for download

  • an Anne Boleyn website

  • The Anne Boleyn Files. Another successful method of making use of the internet as an extra and interactive, publishing tool. Everything you need to know about Anne Boleyn.

  • An article showing more evidence that Anne and George really were closer than just brother and sister.

  • I have also listed pneumonic plague as possible cause of death. It matches the symptoms etc. and the plague was around at that time. But did any of the people close to him get it - it is very infectious.

    This would account for the King's orders for wrapping the body in lead etc. But actually that was not done he just had the basic shroud of waxed cloth. It is more probable that Henry VIII had not given the orders but thought of it later.

  • wiki site

  • very useful question and answer page on the official Hampton Court Palace site.

  • more interesting stuff from Claire Ridgeways's site.

    However: After being in France with the two French Princes and Surrey etc., and what they were getting up to there, it does seem unlikely that Richmond did not know what to do when he was married to the very attractive Mary Howard. It seems clear that Henry VIII claimed their marriage was not consumated to deprive Mary Howard of her rights - she had to fight for her widow's pension. And her father the Duke of Norfolk was sorry he had kept Richmond apart from his wife while he was training him in leading an army, as if they had been together more then there would have been more chance of a child, and the King could not have denied the marriage.

    Henry Fitzroy's Tomb

  • Tomb dedicated to the Duke and Duchess of Richmond, Framlingham: When Thetford Priory was dissolved two years after Henry Fitzroy was buried there, most of the Howard family coffins but not the actual tombs, were transferred to St. Michael's Church, Framlingham, Suffolk. Possible remains of Richmond's original tomb have recently been excavated at Thetford.

    Richmond's later tomb or memorial to him and his wife, can be seen near other Howard memorials by the side of the altar. It is a carved stone sarcophagus decorated with biblical scenes, and shields and lozenges for male and female coats of arms to be added as appropiate in this case, Richmond's in the shields and his wife Mary's in the lozenges. Or combined as was done for married couples as in this picture showing their combined shield on their tomb - Richmond's has the "bar sinister" across it showing he was illegitimate.

    The tomb is clearly a standard design from the same mason as the tomb nearby for the wives of Surrey's eldest son Thomas, who had ordered the new tombs in Framlingham. The first of Thomas Howard's wives, died in October, 1557 but they are both buried elsewhere, although both their effigies lie on top of the tomb.

    On top of Richmond's tomb, are four slightly damaged figures around the edges, similar to those on the other tomb. The top of the tomb, where there should have been effigies of Richmond and his wife who died in December 1557 and was buried with her husband, is rough and damaged and it is not clear if any effigies had ever been fixed on there and removed or destroyed, during the occupation of Framlingham by troops in the Civil War. Or if it never had been finished.

    There are no bodies inside the tombs, they are in vaults under the floor. In 1841, the vaults were opened and the bodies looked at but no detailed descriptions was made. Richmond's body was identified by J. W. Darby, the Reader at St. Michaels, as "the complete body of a young man, wrapped in cere cloth, and inside a wooden coffin, now rotting away". Little information or investigation seems to have been made. Later on access to the vaults was blocked by new flooring. The information can be found in "Richard III's Beloved Cousyn" by John Ashdown-Hill.

    More recently, both Richmond's tomb and that of his father-in-law, the 3rd Duke of Norfolk were examined as it appears that they received a later makeover. The article on the BBC website dates from 16 June, 2011.

    video of excavation of tombs at Framlingham

    More stuff about Henry Fitzroy, some a bit weird

  • One of "The Tudors" bloopers - killed off Henry Fitzroy far too early - missed a lot of useful plot and real history

  • lots of comments plus video on similar lines

  • and more

  • more queries in the ether

  • another article

  • another article

  • more interest in possible murder

    The 17th century HENRY DUCK OFF RICHMOD miniature.

    The early 17th century miniature of dubious attribution. Possibly actually this Duke of Richmond when that age, which would fit the period of the miniature better as it is definitely an end 16th early 17th century nightcap and nightshirt. (He was one of King James I's "favourites"). Or could have been part of a pair of a different couple altogether since in the 17th century lovers used to exchange miniature portraits of themselves in nightclothes. More below:

    Here is a copy of a miniature in the Queen's collection at Windsor. Lettering on the original says in capitals: "HENRY DUCK OFF RICHMOD" "AETIS SVA XV".

    When I enquired about this, one reply was from Oliver Millar. Copy of his letter on right.

    The miniature was purchased from the collection of Horace Walpole in 1845, and later purchased for Queen Victoria. I had queried the attribution of the miniature to Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset, because it shows a youth wearing only an open night-gown and a night-cap in the style of the early 17th century. The style of the black-work embroidered night cap does not appear until the late 16th century. (Reign of Queen Elizabeth). When long hair styles for men started to come back into fashion. A number of these embroidered nightcaps survive in museums. They continued during the 17th century, as casual headwear for men when they were not wearing their wig.

    It was the custom in the 17th century for lovers to commission miniatures for their beloved of themselves in their nightclothes. Which along with the nightcap, does set the portrait in that period. And the lettering is a bit suspect. Horace Walpole was a wealthy 18th century poser and trend-setter for the "Gothick" style. He is famous for his collections to embellish his house at Strawberry Hill, Twickenham, which he used to open to the public as a tourist attraction, and was himself a talented artist and writer. In pioneering the romantic "Gothick", he was known not to be above a spot of forgery or "improvement". As John Gough Nicols pointed out in 1845 about this miniature: "so many of Horace Walpole's appropriations were imaginary that some further evidence of the identity of this portrait is desirable".

    Millar's letter to me is shown. He admitted the inscription was probably not contemporary. The fact that the identification goes back to the 17th century, does not make it refer to someone in the early 16th century! It does make it likely it was someone in the 17th century. A 17th century Duke of Richmond.

    Henry Fitzroy was Duke of Richmond and Somerset. The first Duke of Richmond to be created, was Ludovic Stuart in 1623, born 1574, died 1624. He was a "favourite" of James I and involved in the colonization of Maine in New England. Next was in 1641 - James Stuart 4th Duke of Lennox, was made 2nd Duke of Richmond, then 1675 one of Charles II's bastard sons was the 3rd creation of the Duke of Richmond.

    example of a similar nightcap from 1590

    Horace Walpole's Strawberry Hill Collection

    About the website, author, and book.
    This website, was used as a draft of the book ISBN 9781871443400 - which I put on-line unfinished, so readers and researchers can access the information and make comments, while the book is in progress.

    Copyright: Heather Hobden
    (except for pictures and videos - unless otherwise stated)

    The website will stay as part of the book - ISBN 9781871443400, and eBook - to provide extra illustrations, links and updates.

    Enquiries about using content welcome and although it is unlikely to be refused - it would be wise to do so, as this material is being constantly revised in the light of new discoveries, observations and helpful feedback and also there could be copyright issues on some of the content, and illustrations.

    Probably being born at Hampton Court Palace (maternity hospital moved there when World War II began) made me interested in Tudor history. Was also interested in astronomy since a little girl. (So one of first publications was about the clock). Also was sent to Walthamstow High School, the girls part of the school which was founded in 1512 by George Monoux. Was in the library a lot.

    Worked mostly in television and publishing. Got degree while bringing up twins born 1967. And also commissioned to write booklet on Hampton Court Clock by Ministry of Works. I was researching for the booklet on the Hampton Court Clock and also writing a paper on King Edward VI's Defence of Astronomy. There were a number of mentions of Henry VIII's other son, Henry Fitzroy. When looking into the background of Edward VI's education and upbringing I decided to compare it with that of his brother. When the book was ready was told "no one is interested in the Tudors now". Meanwhile my main interest continued to be the history of astronomy and time keeping, and was getting articles published each month on that. Teaching evening classes. And had lots of other real life things to get on with and to worry about.

    However felt that this was an aspect of history which had been missed. Henry Fitzroy was no more than seventeen and a half years old when he died, but has left a number of unexplained mysteries. Why for example, when he had been to all intents and purposes publicly acclaimed for eleven years as the King's son and potential future heir, did his father dispose of his son's body by ordering a secret burial for which he paid nothing at all.

    Far from being on the sidelines of history, Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond, as Henry VIII's son, was deeply involved in the politics and conspiraces of the government and people. If he had not suddenly and unexpectedly died when he did, he may even have succeeded in overthrowing his father as King of England, since in 1536, there was massive opposition to Henry VIII's policies.

    And that rebellion came back into the news in 1986. When we were celebrating the anniversary of the Lincolnshire Rebellion. The Tudors were back. Could there have been any connection with the possibly suspicious sudden death of the Duke of Richmond, just as an act of Parliament had gone through which would enable Henry VIII to nominate his successor. I discussed this with Anne Ward who was writing the booklet and organising the event. I was at the time writing about the history of astronomy and teaching astronomy. But it looked like there was rather more to the story of Henry VIII's bastard son.

    Interest in Tudor history revived, when teams of divers were finding parts of the "Mary Rose", in the Solent. A tragic wreck (one of the divers died as well, she worked for the same company my husband worked for). The finds give an amazing insight into everyday parts of Tudor life.

    During the 1990s I wrote a short article for the Lincoln website of Roger Parsons. Then as there was a lot of interest, published a short version of the book. Both versions have been used by other writers as reference. Now there is so much more interest in Tudor history, turned it into part of my website, so it can be updated and added to. As I have done with earlier work on the history of astronomy and early timekeeping, and the history of Siberia. Most of it orginally published in articles and booklets. (More still waiting to be added and updated).

    The written work is copyright and some of the pictures used can have copyright restrictions, so best to ask first, mail@cosmicelk.net, if you want to use any material including illustrations.

    Translations from English into other languages of part of the material can be made - please ask me first to make sure it is ok - again because of copyright issues etc.

    Links to information from relevant websites welcome - contact me - mail@cosmicelk.net, and you will also get a link in return if applicable.

    Relevant queries, comments, information and ideas, always welcome and acknowledged.

    Send feedback and queries to: mail@cosmicelk.net.

    The cosmicelk website is designed and maintained
    by Heather Hobden
    The Cosmic Elk

    Copyright Heather Hobden and the Cosmic Elk