Cosmic Elk Links
from the Cosmic Elk.
Time Before Clocks
and exoplanets
Mercury - its history
- its transit
Venus - its history
- its transit
Venus Express
Mars - its history
latest updates
Jupiter - its history
latest updates
Saturn - its history
and Cassini updates
Uranus - its history
Neptune - its history
History of Siberia
Part One

the geology and
early history
mammoth hunters
Chukchi Directions
Directions of Time
and feng shui origins
bronze and iron age
civilizations from Siberia
Shamans and Time
Medieval Siberian
British and Russians
discover Siberia
16th century Yakutia:
origin of the Sakha
17th century Yakutia
and the Russian Invasion
18th century Yakutia
the explorers: part one
18th century Yakutia
the explorers: part two
Russian America
18th and 19th centuries
Yakutia 1820 to 1890
extreme tourism
Japan attacks Russia
Siberia 1890-1912
and a British gold mine
starts a revolution
Tunguska event
As seen by
shamans and scientists
Siberia: 1917 to present
The Great Bear
and the Cosmic Hunt

the ancient sky
calendar and myths.
(More being added.)
The Moon
The Moon and Calendars
Origins of modern calendar
Moon and Eclipses
and history links
and Winter Solstice
Spring Equinox
The Cosmic Mill
Iron Age astronomy:
the mathematicians.
The Ptolemy Effect
Medieval astronomy.
Hampton Court Clock
Latest updated booklet
on the Hampton Court Clock
full story so far.

Tudor Bastard
King Edward VI's
Defence of
Lady Jane Grey's Clocks
Astronomy in the
17th century

The impact of the
new observatories
France, China and
other places.
John Harrison
and the Problem of Longitude

18th century astronomy
drinking song
and fuzzy blobs
space travel
- its history
in the 19th to
21st centuries

red shift and big bang
problems with Big Bang
and dark matter.
Story of the
Westminster Clock
only clock
used as sewer
ventilation shaft
The First Batteries.

taking part
in astronomy

and other
scientific discoveries.

astronomy data
from back garden
and other parts
of the world
past publications.

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Cosmic Elk

science, history and the history of science

Time, Space, Siberia, and Tudor bastards

News and things of interest from the Cosmic Elk

Updates and additional information on topics found on the cosmicelk website. More articles and features still to come.

More information has now been revealed on the navigation methods of the first Australians. More on discoveres made about early astronomy and navigation.

Back to Africa. Or into Africa. Neanderthal genes in South Africa.

Picture shows a handaxe dated to at least 30,000 years ago, recently found. Older than many finds from Europe, Asia etc.

Very early astronomy in Australia. Rediscovered. The Great Emu etc.

Were Denisovans the first Australians?

  • Denisova genome available for researchers. Now able to find out more about our eastern ancestors contemporary with the western Neanderthals. See also.

    Genetic evidence for the Siberian origins of the population of America.

    If different wavelengths of light experience spacetime differently, the big bang may never have happened. As has been suspected. Time is an invention by us and for us to measure the duration of events. This article shows that time may have no beginning, no "big bang".


    Saw comet ISON in late afternoon with two little tails when was heading for the sun. A great show was expected when it returned. It didn't only small fragments seem to have survived.

    October 2013, astronomers using the ALMA radio observatory saw a black hole in the act of ingesting and expelling matter from the centre of the galaxy NGC 1433.

    Voyager 1 now left our solar system after 36 years of its journey into outer space.

    Mars ripped up by super-volcanos early in its history.

    Lots of debris from Mars is known to have landed on Earth, and this is how it could have got here.

    Free Longitude Stuff. Documents relating to the Board of Longitude have now been put on on line. Also currently on-line is a shorter version of our previously published book "John Harrison and the Problem of Longitude" by Mervyn Hobden and Heather Hobden. The technical details are being published in papers and articles by Mervyn Hobden. A free pdf version of the new booklet of the history of finding longitude and Harrison's contribution is now available. The on-line pdf version is copyright Heather and Mervyn Hobden, The Cosmic Elk. If you would like to copy or use anything, please contact us at and you will also be helped to get further information and more illustrations.

    New information on the history of the iron work of the dials and roof of the Westminster Clock, (Big Ben), from Peter Vince. Now on updated website.

    Update on Ceres the small, round, dwarf planet. Ceres will get visited by NASA's Dawn mission, in March 2015.

    evidence that universe not expanding

    JPL simulation of the formation of a galaxy

    image of solar system's comet-like tail IBEX Provides First View Of the Solar System's comet-like tail. Shown in this video.

    cluster of galaxiesA view of galaxies which collided some 11 billion years ago and are forming a massive mega-galaxy about 10 times the size of our own Milky Way. This has been named HXMM01. Original paper.

    tap on picture for update on the discoveries with the Planck telescope on the cosmic microwave background (CMB).

    evidence that universe not expanding

    JPL simulation of the formation of a galaxy

    Are we all Martians?.

    Latest discoveries show that life on Earth may have resulted from a massive impact or impacts on Mars in its first billion years.

    More information and also.

    What happened in 775 AD (or just before) as revealed by tree rings.

    Perhaps reported in the entry for that year in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (translated): "This year also appeared in the heavens a red cross, after sunset. The Mercians and the men of Kent fought at Otford. And wonderful serpents were seen in the land of the South-Saxons."

    Speculations include a supernova.

    Another idea is the collision of two black holes into each other.

    Here are more ideas about what had happened.

  • Latest Erupting Volcanos

  • More evidence for Moon forming in collision. With a large object which has been called Theia (mother of the moon Selene in Greek mythology). The collision melted and vapourised Theia and much of the Earth's mantle. This rock vapour condensed to form the Moon.

    New techniques show that the main Bronze-Age pillars at Stonehenge were covered in carvings of axe heads and daggers. Picture shows part of one of the images obtained.

    More on Stonehenge.

    When did we start learning astronomy
    The history of astronomy goes back further in time than previously imagined. Early humans in South-East Asia, of at least two different species ancestral to to modern humans today, succeeded in travelling across open sea to islands in what is now Indonesia, and further to Australia. As much as a million years ago. Even in an ice-age, open seas wide enough to form a barrier to plants and animals divided islands like Flores from its neighbours, and the Australian continent from South-East Asia. These early voyagers would have had the technology to make sea-worthy boats, as even in the shorter crossings, the seas was infested with hungry sharks and crocodiles, toxic jellyfish, sudden violent storms and strong currents. And they must have had developed some way of finding their way to another shore. See also and early rock art found.

    copyright Heather Hobden, photo by Heather Hobden of back of dial of Hampton Court Clock

    Inside the Hampton Court Clock.

    Latest edition ISBN: 978-1-871443-14-1.

    By Heather Hobden one of the authors of the original official guides to the astronomical clock at Hampton Court Palace, this book contains the full information and latest discoveries on the history of this famous clock. Including those involved in the design, construction and maintenance, and our discovery of the hidden Tudor loo. The booklet has been updated with the latest evidence from the recent restoration by the Cumbria Clock company.

    The picture shows the back of the astronomical dial taken by Heather Hobden. This was before the latest restoration. Samples of metal were sent for testing. Results show that the copper dials date back to Wren's clock, which is why it is so different from the descriptions of the clock in the late 16th century and early 17th century. In fact the only parts that were left of Oursian's clock may have been the bits we were able to see through a hole in the door of the Tudor toilet, which were sticking out of the loo.

    So this is not the clock face as seen by Henry VIII. Before 1541, the tower may have been the one used by Henry VIII as his laboratory (he was keen on medicine and mixed his own ointments and potions), and the top of the tower which was then a flat space was used for astronomy. The clock, with just the one large bell seems to have been in the original bell tower from Wolsey's palace, of which only part survives as this part of the palace was reconstructed considerably by Henry VIII.

    More Tudor History - still in progress - and a possible murder mystery.

    Tudor Bastard: Henry VIII's son, Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset, and his mother Elizabeth Blount. ISBN: 978-1-871443-30-1, by Heather Hobden.

    Now out of print. It is being replaced by a the full version, ISBN: 9781871443400, with much more information on Henry VIII's other son, his life and times, family, friends, the political and economic background, and the mystery of his sudden death just as an act had been passed through Parliament to enable Henry VIII to name his son as his successor.

    The original booklet has been used by other historians as a source. It had been expanded from an article, extended as more and additional information was requested. It could be seen that it was time the full story was investigated published, so this new material is collected together in the website with all the additional material originally researched from primary sources, plus some fresh material and relevant events. This website also has links to references, books, and links to relevant websites for more information. A paperback book and eBook versions are now in progress. Meanwhile the continually updated website provides the latest information.

    Most of the information has already been published in the past in articles, papers, websites, the two former versions of the book etc. and is therefore copyright. And can be found on our website which is being used to build up the book. Comments and enquiries and discussion, are therefore always welcome and useful, and can also help anyone needing more information.

  • More about the picture can be found in the references.
  • the article on Elizabeth Blount (by Heather Hobden).
  • Henry Fitzroy is in this useful Argentinian site.

  • teatowel made by Impsport

    John Harrison and the Problem of Longitude

    by Heather and Mervyn Hobden.

    First published in 1988, and updated and expanded since. This booklet has an account of the problems of finding longitude at sea, and the story of John Harrison who searched for a solution with a maritime clock that would keep precise time at sea. This work has been used as reference by writers, film and tv producers and others. Those needing more information, are welcome to contact us at Feedback and discussion always welcome. Mervyn Hobden has given many talks on Harrison and the longitude problem. He has written papers on the scientific work of John Harrison in a number of horological magazines - also published in USA.

    The illustration is of a teatowel, printed for us by Impsport, which has sold out.

    The original card and comb bound booklet is about to be replaced with a new updated edition. Meanwhile a free temporary pdf version is available.

    John Harrison was just as interested in music as he was in horology. As he was a choir master, he was interested in getting a good sound from an amateur choir, something he had in common with Handel, and his work on musical scales has been studied by Charles Lucy.

    Siberia: land beyond time.

    Evenk shaman tent copyright Heather Hobden, photo by Heather Hobden

    by Heather Hobden, ISBN 978-1-871443-16-5

    The history of this ancient and forgotten land, its great mineral wealth and rich cultural heritage. One of the oldest and the longest inhabited countries in the world. Recently DNA as well as culture has connected Europeans with the First Americans with their origins in central Siberia.

    The story is still on the website as it is continually updated as new information is discovered. Feedback, links, information, etc. is always welcome.

    Most of the information has already been published in articles and booklets, courses and talks, and other websites etc. and is therefore mostly copyright. Always willing to help with information as much as possible.

    1. Start here, the Siberia hub page with references, links etc.
    2. An introduction to the earliest history of Siberia and its origins as one of the first surviving continents on Earth.
    3. The Great Bear and the Seasons
    4. Time Before Clocks. Has more on time in Siberia.
    5. Siberian calendars and timekeeping included in this.
    6. Chukotka and the directions of time.
    7. More on the directions of time and space - includes significant directions in Yakutian cosmology and Evenk time-keeping.
    8. From ice-age mammoth-hunters and their legacy to iron age. Since it appears that the first modern Europeans came from Siberia some 40,000 years ago.
    9. bronze and iron age
      civilizations from Siberia
      . Again spreading to the West...
    10. Shamans and Time. Has more about the religion and the shamans.
    11. Medieval Siberian Invaders Evenk and others.
    12. Continues with the invasion from the west.
    13. 16th century Yakutia and the origin of the Sakha.
    14. 17th century Yakutia and the Russian Invasion.
    15. Yakutia in the 18th century Part One..
    16. Yakutia in the 18th century Part Two.The Billings Expedition.
    17. Russian America
    18. Siberia 1820 to 1890 - extreme tourism
    19. Siberia 1890 to 1912 - and trouble with gold
    20. Japan attacks Russia and Wins
    21. Tunguska event
    22. from first world war on to present

    looking beyond "the Cosmic Elk" (Plough constellation) with Hubble to NGC 2841

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    enquiries, information and feedback always welcome, you can contact us at

    The cosmicelk website is designed and maintained
    by Heather Hobden
    The Cosmic Elk

    Some info about Heather Hobden now on Linkedin.

    Copyright Heather Hobden and the Cosmic Elk